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What are Xylem and Phloem?
An outline of the functions of the xylem and phloem.
How Does the Urinary System Work
The kidneys are amazing as they filter blood to excrete urine. This film explores how this happens.
What is the Human Fertilisation Process
It's all relative. How does the human fertilisation process work?
What is Mitosis and Meiosis
Mitosis and meiosis are both forms of cell division. This film explores how mitosis and meiosis occur.
What is Natural Selection?
Natural selection is the gradual adaptation of a population to become more suited to its environment.
How are Chemical Equations Balanced?
If you're studying chemistry, you need to know how to balance your equations. This short film will explore how it is achieved.
What are the Methods to Measure Rate of Reaction?
How the rate of reaction can be measured, and assessment of potential apparatus.
How is Ammonia Produced in the Haber Process?
What is the Haber Process and how does it work?
How is Acid Rain Formed?
Acid rain is formed when nitrogen dioxide, or sulfur dioxide, both produced by burning fossil fuels, reacts with water in the atmosphere to produce rain with a pH value below 5.
What Forces Act Upon an Object?
What is the first law of motion? What forces can act upon an object. Whether you're walking, sitting, throwing or driving, forces affect us all.
What is Convection in Liquid or Gas?
This film explores how convection works and how it is investigated in the lab.
How is Resistance Measured in a Wire?
Resistance lowers the current and the rate of electrons flowing through something. How does this happen in wires and how is it measured?
Katherine Johnson: Trailblazing NASA Mathematician
At a time when American space exploration was dominated by men, mathematician Katherine Johnson broke through gender and racial barriers to help change our understanding of the cosmos forever.
Susan La Flesche Picotte: The First Female Native American Doctor
At a time when many Native Americans were refused healthcare by racist White doctors, Susan La Flesche Picotte overcame gender discrimination to become the first Indigenous woman in U.S. history to earn a medical degree.
Adding to the Problem
Deforestation and the use of fossil fuels are not the only human activities causing climate change. Other aspects of modern life are adding to the problem by producing greenhouse gases, like methane, nitrous oxide and chlorofluorocarbons. Let’s examine where they come from.
The Carbon Cycle
The Carbon Cycle is the process by which carbon is constantly absorbed, stored and recycled by living and non-living things, thereby maintaining the delicate balance that supports all life on Earth.
Photosynthesis (IB)
An in-depth outline of photosynthesis, including light-dependent and light-independent reactions, how it is powered by excited electrons and ATP, and processes such as photolysis, chemiosmosis and the Calvin Cycle.
A visual outline of how Cas9-CRISPR is applied in human cells to edit DNA.
Free Radical Substitution (IB)
An outline of free radical substitution reactions - including what free radicals are, how they are created, and propagation and termination steps to these reactions.
Greenhouse Effect (IB)
An outline of the energy balance model of the Earth-atmosphere system, including how to calculate the effect of greenhouse gases, and the atmosphere, on Earth’s average temperature.
The Greenhouse Effect
Earth’s atmosphere acts like a greenhouse, deflecting the fiercest of the Sun’s rays while retaining heat that would otherwise escape at night. This is known as the greenhouse effect and it’s a process that’s essential to life on Earth.
Fossil Fuels: Part One
For centuries, humans have relied on fossil fuels to power our world. Coal fuelled the Industrial Revolution but also had a devastating impact on people and the natural environment. Let’s dig a little deeper into our use of coal.
Heatwaves caused by periods of extreme hot or dry weather are becoming more frequent across our planet. While some regions are able to cope with their devastating effects, others struggle to survive.
What is a Dichotomous Key?
A dichotomous key is a tool for classifying organisms based on how similar they are to each other. It involves asking a series of questions, each with only two possible answers.
How Does the Digestive System Work?
What happens when you eat a burger? Where does it go and how does your body process it? This film helps you to digest the facts.
How Does the Circulatory System Work?
Your heart is alway pumping blood around your body. This short film doesn't miss a beat, and explains how the circulatory system works.
What is Active Immunity?
How active immunity happens in the body, via natural infection or vaccination.
How is Gas Exchanged During Respiration?
Take in a breath of fresh air as we investigate how gas exchange occurs at the alveolus.
How are Ionic and Covalent Bonds Formed?
Ionic and covalent bonds both involve the moving of electrons, allowing two atoms to each achieve complete outer shells. But how does this happen?
What is Electrolysis?
Electrolysis is the breakdown of an aqueous or molten ionic compound when an electric current is passed through it. Easy? Well this film explores the process and makes it easier to understand.
What are Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions?
Hot or cold! What are endothermic and exothermic reactions, and how they can be depicted in reaction pathway diagrams?
How do Equilibrium Reactions Work?
We explore how equilibrium reactions work, with reference to reversibility and changing conditions of temperature, pressure or concentration.
What is an Acid-base Titration?
In a laboratory how do we carry out an acid-base titration? We investigate.
How is Energy Conserved?
The law of conservation of energy states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, it can only be stored, or converted into other forms of energy.
What are the Properties of Waves?
A quick guide to the various properties of waves including reflection, refraction, and diffraction.
How Does a Solenoid Work?
How does a solenoid work and what is its applications?
How Does an Electric Motor Work?
We use then everyday, but how does an electric motor work?
What Makes The Invisible Man a Classic?
First published as a novel in 1897, HG Wells' The Invisible Man is the story of a scientist corrupted by his own ambition. A gripping story of madness and immorality, its brutal conclusion still has the power to shock today.
Electrolysis (IB)
An outline of the basic chemical process of electrolysis, including electron flow through the entire system.
Nucleophilic Substitution (IB)
An outline of how both SN1 and SN2 types of nucleophilic substitution reaction occur, including covering the nature of electrophiles and nucleophiles.
Lilian Bland
For this Rebel Girl, the sky was the limit.An aviator who was determined to fly into the history books as the first woman to design, build and pilot her own plane. We explore who Lilian Bland was. Based on the best-selling book series 'Goodnight Stories for Rebel Girls'.
This Rebel Girl was a fearless warrior; Queen of an ancient British tribe called the Iceni, who spearheaded a rebellion against the Romans to protect her Kingdom. We explore who Boudicca was. Based on the best-selling book series 'Goodnight Stories for Rebel Girls'.
How is Magnification Calculated?
From microscopes to cameras, how do we calculate magnification, and why is it important?
What is an Enzyme?
Enzymes are essential for life, and understanding how they catalyze reactions in the body will book your understanding of how our bodies work.
How is Iron Produced in a Furnace?
Have a blast in understanding how iron is produced in a furnace.
What are Distance-time and Speed-time Graphs?
How do Distance-time and Speed-time graphs work? This video explains.
What Experiments Measure Density?
Measuring density is helpful in all walks of life. How do we do it and what are the calculations?
What is the Principle of Moments?
What is a moment and what is its principles? This film explores how the principle of moments applies to a beam’s movement around a pivot.
What is a Converging Lens and How Does it Work?
This film explains how converging lenses work and their applications.
How are Magnets Made?
This is an attractive film. How are magnets created manually or via an electric current.
How are Objects Charged by Friction?
Friction charges objects by rubbing electrons from one object onto another, leaving one object positive and the other negative.
How Does the Earth Orbit the Sun?
We explore how day and night and the seasons are created by the Earth’s orbit, and of how the phases of the moon are created by the moon’s orbit around the Earth.
NASA: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration, aka NASA, has been at the forefront of science, technology, and space exploration since 1958. Its work remains an inspiration to millions of people around the world.
Fossil Fuels: Part Two
For centuries, humans have relied on fossil fuels to power our world. Oil and gas are hydrocarbons that have helped fuel our modern way of living, but burning them has a devastating impact on the natural world.
Human Impact
By monitoring changes in C02 levels over thousands of years, scientists know that Earth’s temperature is rising. The biggest cause of global warming? Our reliance on harmful fossil fuels.
Discover the science behind Solstices, the longest and shortest days of the year, and how Earth's tilt plays a crucial role in this phenomenon.
Twice a year, the Earth experiences an equinox – a remarkable cosmic event where day and night are of equal length, all over the world.
Mildred Cohn: Trailblazing Biochemist
Mildred Cohn shattered gender and religious barriers to revolutionize biochemistry, developing techniques with far-reaching applications in medicine and agriculture.
Conservation of Angular Momentum (IB)
An outline of the basic principle of conservation of angular momentum, illustrating the inverse relationship between angular velocity and moment of inertia, with real-world examples.
Methods of Charging (IB)
An outline of three ways electric charge can be moved between objects, including mention of how non-conducting objects can become charged.
Mitosis Compared to Meiosis (IB)
An outline of mitosis and meiosis forms of cell division: comparing the similarities and differences between them, and outlining their function in organisms.
Queen Elizabeth I
This Rebel Girl never expected to be queen of England and Ireland. She came to the throne when she was just 25 years old; And ruled over one of the greatest periods in English history. We explore who Queen Elizabeth I was. Based on the best-selling book series 'Goodnight Stories for Rebel Girls'.
What is the Carbon Cycle?
What is the carbon cycle and how are humans changing it?
What is the Diffusion of Molecules?
The diffusion of molecules is crucial for life. We delve into the science of how diffusion occurs and what affects it.
What is Photosynthesis?
Plants are essential for life on Earth by utilising photosynthesis. What is it, and what does it produce?
What is Paper Chromatography?
Paper chromatography is a way of identifying and separating compounds into different chemicals, based on how far each chemical travels up some filter paper dipped in solvent.
How are Empirical and Molecular Formulas Calculated?
This film explains how to calculate empirical and molecular formulae.
What Tests Can Detect the Presence of Certain Gases?
How do we test for different gases? This short film shows how.
How Does a Hydraulic System Work?
Take a break. Hydraulics help us in all areas of life. We explore how pressure is harnessed to stop a car and what the calculations are.
What is the Life Cycle of a Star?
This film explores the lifecycle of a star.
How are Relays Used in Circuits?
We explore how relays are used in circuits, how LDRs and thermistors could be used in such circuits, and how these components can be recognised.
What invisible enemy did George Washington help defeat?
The American Revolution wasn’t just a fight against the British but also a much smaller and more deadly foe: smallpox. So how did Continental Army Commander George Washington help defeat it? David Rubenstein answers that question in a fact-filled history minute.
Collisions in Two Dimensions (IB)
A guide to understanding and applying the conservation of momentum, during collisions when the motion of the colliding bodies is not restricted to one dimension.
Resonance and Damping (IB)
An outline of natural frequencies, driving frequencies, the nature of resonance, and damping forces, with real-world examples.
Compton Effect (IB)
A visual outline of the Compton Effect experiment, in which photons are scattered by electrons they hit. Includes context on what evidence this provides regarding the wave or particle nature of light.
Stellar Parallax (IB)
An explanation of how the stellar parallax method can be used to calculate distances to stars, including the limitations of this method.
Florence Nightingale
This Rebel Girl revolutionized health care. A British Nurse whose work saved millions of lives, by the simple act of encouraging us to wash our hands. We discover who Florence Nightingale was. Based on the best-selling book series 'Goodnight Stories for Rebel Girls'.
Transport of Oxygen by Haemoglobin (IB)
A detailed look at how haemoglobin transports oxygen with analysis of the oxygen dissociation curve.
What is Echolocation/Sonar?
This film explores how echolocation/sonar works, in technology and in animals. This film explores how echolocation/sonar works, in technology and in animals. This film explores how echolocation/sonar works.....
How do we Test for Biological Molecules?
Practical science is always enjoyable, so how can you test for 5 key biological substances?
What is Synaptic Transmission
Have you got the nerve to explore synaptic transmission?
How Does the Greenhouse Effect Work?
Things are heating up. We explore how the greenhouse effect works, including causing global warming, climate change and consequent effects.
How do Two Gases Diffuse?
The diffusion of molecules is crucial for life. So what affects the diffusion of molecules and what cause gases to diffuse at different speeds?
What is the Structure of the Atom?
Atoms are composed of a central nucleus, containing positively-charged protons and neutrally-charged neutrons. Smaller, negatively-charged electrons travel around the nucleus in layered orbits called shells.
What Factors Affect Reaction Rate?
What factors affecting rate of a reaction limited to temperature, concentration, pressure and surface area.
What are the Trends in the Periodic Table?
A short guide to the Periodic Table.
What Happens When Metal Reacts with an Acid or Water?
This film explores how metals react with water, acids and oxygen, in terms of the reactivity series.
Operation Paperclip
Operation Paperclip saw around 1,600 Nazi scientists recruited by U.S. intelligence to aid American innovation. As a result, none were ever held accountable for their crimes.
Burning the Forests
Trees and forests are known as the lungs of the Earth – because they absorb and store carbon. But when they’re burned or cut down, the C02 they release contributes to global warming.
Our Carbon Culture
For centuries, humans have relied on fossil fuels to power our world. Coal fuelled the Industrial Revolution but has also had a devastating impact on people and the natural environment. Let’s dig a little deeper into our use of coal.
Warming Oceans
Since the 1970s, our oceans have absorbed 90% of the excess heat produced by CO2 emissions. As our oceans get hotter, and sea levels continue to rise, our world is sure to look very different in the future.
Henrietta Lacks' Revolutionary HeLa Cells
The astonishing story of Henrietta Lacks' immortal cells, taken without consent, revolutionized medical research but also exposed ethical dilemmas, leading to crucial changes in consent laws to protect patients' rights in the scientific community.
Elizabeth Blackwell: Trailblazer for Women in Medicine
The first woman to graduate from a U.S. medical college, Elizabeth Blackwell broke through gender barriers to make history. Her remarkable story of courage and perseverance serves as a testament to the strength of the human spirit.
Viruses and the Lysogenic Cycle (IB)
An outline of the lytic and lysogenic cycles, using bacterial cells and the viruses which infect them as a visual example. Additional reference to the Herpes simplex virus as an animal example.
Evolution by Natural Selection (IB)
A visual outline of the core process of evolution by natural selection, emphasising that adaptation takes place over generations, from heritable variation.
Muscle Contraction (IB)
The structure of skeletal muscles and a detailed look at the sliding filament mechanism of muscle contraction.
Immune Response (IB)
An outline of the human response to infection, giving an overview of the adaptive immune response which includes B and T cells, antibody production and vaccination.
Translation (IB)
An outline of the process of translating DNA bases into a protein, via an mRNA codon:tRNA anti-codon mechanism forming a polypeptide chain.
Thermal Conduction (IB)
A visual explanation of the factors which affect the rate of thermal energy transfer by conduction.
Doppler Effect (IB)
A visual explanation of the Doppler Effect as it applies to sound waves.
Motion of Charged Particles in a Uniform Magnetic Field (IB)
A visual explanation of the path of charged particles in a uniform magnetic field, according to their charge and their angle of entry into the magnetic field. Includes how to calculate the radius of the particle’s path.
Hydrogen Emission Spectrum (IB)
A visual explanation of how the hydrogen emission spectrum provides evidence for the arrangement of electrons in discrete energy levels in atoms.
Chromatography (IB)
An outline of how chromatography is used to separate the components of a substance based on each component’s intermolecular interactions with the materials it is moving through. Includes guidance on how to calculate each substance’s signature retardation factor.
Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie
This Rebel Girl wanted the world to read stories that were a true reflection of life in Nigeria. So she wrote her own stories about Africa which inspired a new generation of readers around the world. We explore who Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie is. Based on the best-selling book series 'Goodnight Stories for Rebel Girls'.
Beatrix Potter
This Rebel Girl captured our imaginations with her much-loved tales. An English writer who took matters into her own hands when no one would publish her stories, And went on to become one of the world's bestselling children’s authors. We explore who Beatrix Potter was. Based on the best-selling book series 'Goodnight Stories for Rebel Girls'.