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2023 Releases

A collection of all the series released in 2023

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The Brontë Sisters
In the 19th century, amidst societal expectations for women to stay home, the Brontë Sisters defied norms, pursuing their literary dreams. Their novels unveiled the genuine aspirations of women at the time.
Henrietta Lacks' Revolutionary HeLa Cells
The astonishing story of Henrietta Lacks' immortal cells, taken without consent, revolutionized medical research but also exposed ethical dilemmas, leading to crucial changes in consent laws to protect patients' rights in the scientific community.
Muckrakers... or Investigative Journalists?
An essential part of any functioning democracy - the press helps to make governments accountable for their actions; but when the first investigative reporters started working in the United States, not everyone saw them as a good thing.
Gerald Ford: The Unelected President
Gerald Ford holds a unique place in the history of U.S. politics – as the only American to hold the office of Vice President and President without ever winning a national election. Who was he, and what was his presidency like?
Teddy Roosevelt's Square Deal
In the early 1900s, President Theodore Roosevelt's progressive legislation, dubbed the Square Deal, aimed to limit the power of corporations, protect consumers, and conserve natural resources. The Square Deal drastically changed the United States – and still impacts our lives today.
Native American Boarding Schools: Forced Separation of Families
For over a hundred years, the U.S. government used education as a tool to assimilate Native American children into American society - by systematically erasing their history, culture, and language.
Hoovervilles: Shantytowns of the Great Depression
As the Great Depression worsened in the 1930s, thousands of Americans lost their jobs and eventually their homes. Shantytowns dubbed “Hoovervilles” named after unsympathetic President Herbert Hoover, spread across the U.S.
Building the Erie Canal: Explained
The earliest major industrial project in the United States’ history, the Erie Canal connected East to West by water and enabled a new era of commerce, trade, and movement.
Forced Removal to Mexico: Repatriation Drives
During the Great Depression, the U.S. government detained and deported almost 2 million Mexican American citizens and people of Mexican descent, in an initiative known as the Repatriation Drives.
The Showdown: MacArthur v. Truman
History is packed with epic rivalries, but when U.S. President Harry S. Truman went up against Five Star General Douglas MacArthur during the Korean War – there was only going to be one winner.
The Day the River Caught Fire
When Time magazine published details of a river fire in downtown Cleveland in 1969, the outcry was so loud and widespread, the U.S. government was forced into action.
Building the Panama Canal
The Panama Canal is a vital trade route linking the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Its fascinating story goes back hundreds of years.
Tammany Hall: Controlling New York Politics
It is the historic New York building that is synonymous with greed, crime and corruption, but what is the true story behind Tammany Hall?
The Botched Invasion: Bay of Pigs
One of the Cold War’s only violent actions, the Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba in 1961 proved to be a humiliating defeat for the U.S. government.
Puppy Diplomacy and the Cold War
In 1961, a gift from Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev to President John F. Kennedy, the adorable pooch Pushinka, brought the men closer together. Did puppy diplomacy prevent an all out nuclear war?
The Pentagon Papers: Explained
The Pentagon Papers revealed how the U.S. government had lied to the public about its involvement in the Vietnam War. Leaked by the New York Times, this opened the door for future whistleblowers to expose the truth.
Back to Work: The Civilian Conservation Corps
In the 1930s, hundreds of thousands of Americans were recruited across the United States to protect and preserve the country's forests, parks, and fields. The Civilian Conservation Corps, a voluntary work relief program, was way ahead of its time.
Juneteenth Explained
Also known as Freedom Day and Emancipation Day, Juneteenth celebrates the resilience of Black Americans and the historic achievement of abolition itself. But how did it come about?
Madeleine Albright's Brooches
The U.S.’s first female Secretary of State used her collection of brooches to get her point across when meeting with foreign leaders, a practice that became known as “Pin Diplomacy.”
The Great American Songbook
The Great American Songbook, a collection of jazz standards and show tunes created by talented songwriters in early 20th century New York, provided solace and joy during difficult times in U.S. history.
Hawaiian Leis and the Selma to Montgomery March
The Selma to Montgomery March was one of the most important actions of the Civil Rights Movement – but what were the connections between Black Americans and Hawaiians and why did the leaders wear Hawaiian necklaces?
The History of the Rainbow Flag
The rainbow flag is one of the most recognisable symbols in the world, synonymous with tolerance and LGBTQ+ rights. But how was it created?
Let’s Go To Jamaica
Jamaica is the largest island in the Caribbean that’s famous as the birthplace of reggae music, spicy jerk chicken and one of the fastest athletes in history. Let’s find out more!
Let's Go to the UAE
The United Arab Emirates is a country in the Middle East that’s famous for its sandy deserts, super tall buildings and islands built into the sea. Let’s find out more!
Let’s Go To The Galapagos Islands
The Galapagos are a chain of islands in the Pacific Ocean. They’re known for their natural beauty, unique flora and fauna, and as the place where English naturalist Charles Darwin first developed his theory of evolution.
Let’s Go To Kenya
Kenya is a country in East Africa. It’s known for its wildlife safaris, Maasai warriors and world-beating long distance runners. Let’s find out more.
Let’s Go To Iceland
Iceland is a country in the North Atlantic Sea. It’s known for gushing geysers, the Viking Thunder Clap and the Northern lights. Let’s find out more.
Let’s Go To China
China is a country in East Asia. It’s known for martial arts, ancient palaces, like the Forbidden City, and the Great Wall of China. Let’s find out more.
Let's Go to Cuba
Cuba is the largest island in the Caribbean and it’s famous for its beautiful sandy beaches, salsa dancing and lots of vintage cars. Let’s find out more!
Let’s Go To Egypt
Egypt is a country in North East Africa. It’s known for its ancient pyramids, the River Nile and miles of sandy deserts. Let’s find out more.
Let’s Go To South Africa
South Africa is a country in the South of Africa. It’s famous for Table Mountain, beloved leaders, like Nelson Mandela, and safaris. Let’s find out more.
Let's Go to the Netherlands
The Netherlands is a country in Northern Europe that’s famous for its beautiful windmills, stunning tulips and world-class artists. Let’s take a closer look!
Let’s Go To Spain
Spain is a country in Southwestern Europe. It’s famous for soccer, amazing architecture and food fighting festivals! Let’s find out more.
Miss Major Griffin-Gracy: Activist for Transgender Rights
Present at the Stonewall Uprising of 1959, pioneering transgender activist Miss Major Griffin-Gracy lived through the HIV/AIDS epidemic to fight for LGBTQ+ rights in the United States and beyond.
Matilda Hughes: Fighting for Family
Enduring slavery and loss, Matilda Hughes's relentless quest to reunite and rebuild her family showcases the indomitable spirit of love amidst America's darkest chapters.
Elizabeth Blackwell: Trailblazer for Women in Medicine
The first woman to graduate from a U.S. medical college, Elizabeth Blackwell broke through gender barriers to make history. Her remarkable story of courage and perseverance serves as a testament to the strength of the human spirit.
Sarah Winnemucca
The first Indigenous woman to publish a memoir, Paiute educator and activist Sarah Winnemucca campaigned tirelessly for the rights of Indigenous Americans.
Beverly LaHaye
At a time when many women in the United States were campaigning for greater rights, Beverly LaHaye raised her voice for traditional values. An expert activist and founder of Concerned Women for America, today she is admired and reviled in equal measure.
Ernestine Rose
A pioneering suffragette and free thinker, Ernestine Rose was way ahead of her time. Described as the “first Jewish feminist”, she used her voice to campaign for women’s rights and improve the lives of millions.
Shirley Chisholm: Confronting the Political Machine
As the first Black woman elected to Congress, Shirley Chisholm made history in her lifelong struggle to empower minorities and change the United States.
Wilma Mankiller
Wilma Mankiller, a Native American activist who became the first female chief of her tribe, dedicated her life to the Cherokee Nation and the expansion of Indigenous rights.
Kateri Tekakwitha: First North American Indigenous Saint
Kateri Tekakwitha's journey from a Mohawk village to Catholic sainthood reflects the intertwined tales of faith and colonization in 17th century America.
Mary Ann Shadd Cary: Antislavery Activist
The first Black newspaper editor in the history of the United States, Mary Ann Shadd Cary spoke out to champion the cause of freedom in an era when the voices of African Americans were rarely heard.
Yuri Kochiyama: Unyielding Voice for Justice
Following the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, thousands of Japanese-Americans were interned on U.S. soil. Determined to right this wrong, Yuri Kochiyama testified to Congress and helped those affected win $20,000 in compensation.
Bella Abzug: Pioneering Feminist Icon
At a time when the U.S. House of Representatives was dominated by men, pioneering feminist Bella Abzug became a law-making force to be reckoned with.
Harriet R. Gold Boudinot: Interracial Marriage in Early America
The interracial marriage of Harriet R. Gold and Elias Boudinot transcended racial taboos of the 1800s, leaving a lasting impact on both the Cherokee and Cornwall communities.
Ona Judge: Self-Emancipated from the Presidential Mansion
Born into slavery on George Washington's plantation, Ona Judge's daring escape highlights the ideological contradictions of personal liberty in early America.
Tituba: The First Accused Witch
The Salem Witch Trials are one of the most infamous tragedies in American history, yet most people do not know the story of the enslaved woman at the heart of the hysteria, the first accused witch, Tituba.
Letitia Carson: Defiant Pioneer
In the mid-19th century, only around 3% of those who traveled West on the Oregon Trail were Black. Among them was Letitia Carson, the only Black woman in Oregon to successfully receive land through the Homestead Act.
Afong Moy
Afong Moy is believed to be the first Chinese woman to step foot on U.S. soil and her presence sparked an American fascination with Chinese culture, but her experience in the United States was far from welcoming.
Susan Clark Holley: Breaking Barriers in Education
Facing racial barriers in 19th-century Iowa, Susan Clark Holley’s legal battle pioneered school desegregation, laying early groundwork for the monumental Brown v. Board of Education case.
Angela Davis
Despite being on the FBI's Top Ten Most Wanted list, Angela Davis went on to become an international symbol of resistance against social injustice.
WWII POW Camps on U.S. Soil
Between 1942 and 1946, the U.S. government constructed around 700 POW camps on U.S. soil, housing around 400,000 captured enemy soldiers. But what were the conditions like there?
The Untold Know Nothings
In the mid 19th century a new political party, the Know Nothings, set the stage for xenophobia and nationalism to take root in American politics.
Charles Curtis: Native American Vice President, Untold
In 1929, Charles Curtis – a member of the Kaw Nation – made history by becoming the first Vice President of color in the U.S. Yet he left behind a complicated legacy that some claim had a lasting negative impact on Native Americans.
The Teapot Dome Scandal, Untold
The Teapot Dome Scandal in the 1920s stunned the American public by exposing the large-scale greed of some US politicians, and empowered Congress to launch investigations - reaffirming that no one is above the law.
Abdul Rahman Ibrahima Sori: A Prince Enslaved
Abdul Rahman Ibrahima Sori, a Fula prince and former slave, was determined to free his family. His extraordinary story and character caught America's attention at a complicated time in American history.
Josephine Baker: Actor, Singer, Spy
Actor and singer Josephine Baker spent her life resisting racial discrimination at home and abroad. During World War II, she bravely used her fame to fight back against the Nazis.
Yarrow Mamout: From Slavery to Financier
African Muslim Yarrow Mamout rose from a life of slavery to become a popular businessman in Washington, D.C. Artist Charles Willson Peale painted his portrait and discovered his incredible story.
Newton Knight: Fighting the Confederacy
Newton Knight was a Confederate soldier in the American Civil War who went AWOL to form a guerrilla force of fellow deserters and escaped slaves, who fought against the Confederacy.
Sandra Day O’Connor: “Don’t Take the Bait”
The first female justice in the U.S. Supreme Court’s 191-year history, Sandra Day O’Connor succeeded in a man’s world by never letting sexism stand in her way.
Who was Deep Throat?
Codenamed Deep Throat, FBI chief William Mark Felt, Sr., displayed immense courage to expose abuses of power at the heart of government during the infamous Watergate investigation.
Susan La Flesche Picotte: The First Female Native American Doctor
At a time when many Native Americans were refused healthcare by racist White doctors, Susan La Flesche Picotte overcame gender discrimination to become the first Indigenous woman in U.S. history to earn a medical degree.
Gladys Bentley: Breaking All the Rules
At a time when homosexuality was illegal in the United States, LGBTQ+ artist and pioneer Gladys Bentley broke all the rules to become one of the wealthiest Black performers of her time.
How to Make Strategic Decisions
Identifying key characteristics to become an assertive decision-maker and recognizing the steps required to make decisions more assertively is essential to succeed in business. This film explores what qualities you need to require to become a successful entrepreneur.
CREATE Relationships | Trust Each Other
When we create new things, we learn by being open to constructive feedback from other people. But to learn from comments others say about our work, we must trust each other.
The Blowouts
In 1968, thousands of Latino students walked out of school in Los Angeles to protest against racial inequality in the classroom. Their collective action, known as the Blowouts, was a defining moment of the Chicano Movement.
The Haymarket Affair
One of the worst miscarriages of justice in U.S. history, the Haymarket Affair, a labor action in support of an eight-hour working day, led to the unlawful executions of four Chicago residents.
Doppler Effect (IB)
A visual explanation of the Doppler Effect as it applies to sound waves.
Motion of Charged Particles in a Uniform Magnetic Field (IB)
A visual explanation of the path of charged particles in a uniform magnetic field, according to their charge and their angle of entry into the magnetic field. Includes how to calculate the radius of the particle’s path.
Thermal Conduction (IB)
A visual explanation of the factors which affect the rate of thermal energy transfer by conduction.
Compton Effect (IB)
A visual outline of the Compton Effect experiment, in which photons are scattered by electrons they hit. Includes context on what evidence this provides regarding the wave or particle nature of light.
Collisions in Two Dimensions (IB)
A guide to understanding and applying the conservation of momentum, during collisions when the motion of the colliding bodies is not restricted to one dimension.
Stellar Parallax (IB)
An explanation of how the stellar parallax method can be used to calculate distances to stars, including the limitations of this method.
Resonance and Damping (IB)
An outline of natural frequencies, driving frequencies, the nature of resonance, and damping forces, with real-world examples.
Conservation of Angular Momentum (IB)
An outline of the basic principle of conservation of angular momentum, illustrating the inverse relationship between angular velocity and moment of inertia, with real-world examples.
Methods of Charging (IB)
An outline of three ways electric charge can be moved between objects, including mention of how non-conducting objects can become charged.
Greenhouse Effect (IB)
An outline of the energy balance model of the Earth-atmosphere system, including how to calculate the effect of greenhouse gases, and the atmosphere, on Earth’s average temperature.
Chromatography (IB)
An outline of how chromatography is used to separate the components of a substance based on each component’s intermolecular interactions with the materials it is moving through. Includes guidance on how to calculate each substance’s signature retardation factor.
Hydrogen Emission Spectrum (IB)
A visual explanation of how the hydrogen emission spectrum provides evidence for the arrangement of electrons in discrete energy levels in atoms.
Nucleophilic Substitution (IB)
An outline of how both SN1 and SN2 types of nucleophilic substitution reaction occur, including covering the nature of electrophiles and nucleophiles.
Electrolysis (IB)
An outline of the basic chemical process of electrolysis, including electron flow through the entire system.
Free Radical Substitution (IB)
An outline of free radical substitution reactions - including what free radicals are, how they are created, and propagation and termination steps to these reactions.
Muscle Contraction (IB)
The structure of skeletal muscles and a detailed look at the sliding filament mechanism of muscle contraction.
Translation (IB)
An outline of the process of translating DNA bases into a protein, via an mRNA codon:tRNA anti-codon mechanism forming a polypeptide chain.
Immune Response (IB)
An outline of the human response to infection, giving an overview of the adaptive immune response which includes B and T cells, antibody production and vaccination.
Evolution by Natural Selection (IB)
A visual outline of the core process of evolution by natural selection, emphasising that adaptation takes place over generations, from heritable variation.
Viruses and the Lysogenic Cycle (IB)
An outline of the lytic and lysogenic cycles, using bacterial cells and the viruses which infect them as a visual example. Additional reference to the Herpes simplex virus as an animal example.
Transport of Oxygen by Haemoglobin (IB)
A detailed look at how haemoglobin transports oxygen with analysis of the oxygen dissociation curve.
Mitosis Compared to Meiosis (IB)
An outline of mitosis and meiosis forms of cell division: comparing the similarities and differences between them, and outlining their function in organisms.
Photosynthesis (IB)
An in-depth outline of photosynthesis, including light-dependent and light-independent reactions, how it is powered by excited electrons and ATP, and processes such as photolysis, chemiosmosis and the Calvin Cycle.
A visual outline of how Cas9-CRISPR is applied in human cells to edit DNA.
Revolutionary Diplomats: Franklin and Adams
During the Revolutionary War, Benjamin Franklin and John Adams were both sent by Congress to Paris – with the vital diplomatic mission of securing French aid in the war. The two Founding Fathers lived together but they were far from ideal housemates.
Transportation: Revolutionary Muscle Power
Fighting battles is only one part of waging war. Another, just as important, is moving armies and all their supplies around. In the Revolutionary War, when there were few good roads, and never enough horses, transportation was a constant challenge.
Flatboats: Small Boats, Revolutionary Impact
The Royal Navy outgunned the Continentals during the Revolutionary War. But on the waterways of the Thirteen Colonies, the most important craft was not the warship - it was the humble flat-bottomed boat.
The Ethiopian Regiment
In 1775, Virginian slave owners didn’t just have the war to worry about. The Royal Governor of the colony was encouraging their slaves to escape, offering them freedom if they would fight for the British. Many Black men took up the offer, joining a fighting force that became known as the Ethiopian Regiment.
Foraging: Feeding Soldiers in the Revolution
Foraging was a common practice in the Revolutionary War – with supplies low, it was the only way that many soldiers could stay alive. But a free lunch for the army camp was often a disaster for local farmers. In certain cases, civilians found their possessions being plundered by armies on both sides.
Newtown: A Crushing Defeat for the Iroquois
The Revolutionary War was never a simple story of Patriot vs Redcoat. Older nations with far deeper American roots were also caught up in the war. To secure their future, the nations of the Iroquois Confederacy had to choose a side – and in many ways, their long term fate was decided on the day of the Battle of Newtown.
Guilford Courthouse: Defeat for Both Sides?
At the Battle of Guilford Courthouse, the British Army in the south finally met the Continentals in open battle. Despite being outnumbered, the professional Redcoats showed their mettle, and won the day. But Britain’s ability to impose its will on the South was coming to an end.
Charles Willson Peale: Revolutionary Artist
A look at the life and talents of Charles Willson Peale, portrait artist of the American Revolution and Philadelphian Renaissance man.
Benjamin Lincoln: Revolutionary Revenge
Continental General Benjamin Lincoln surrendered his troops at Charleston – one of the worst American defeats in the Revolutionary War. So how, just a year later, was he the one to receive the British sword of surrender at Yorktown?
Henry Clinton: The General who Lost America
For most of the Revolutionary War, General Henry Clinton was second-in-command of the British army and he had his own ideas about what strategies should be pursued. But when he finally got the top job, nothing turned out as he had hoped.
The Attacks on Forts Clinton & Montgomery
In 1777, the British Army attacked Forts Montgomery and Clinton on the Hudson and ensured access up river. But what did they gain from the victory?
The Culper Ring: Spying for the Revolution
The Culper Spy Ring was a network of brave, self-taught spies, who stole information out of New York City, right under the noses of the British - to keep George Washington and the Continental Army informed.
Bunker Hill: Proving Ground of the Patriots
During the Battle of Bunker Hill a ragtag group of farmers and tradesman faced the best trained army in the world. But the rebel militia came close to winning this key battle in the Revolutionary War - and the result was a boost to Patriot morale.
Nathanael Greene: The Savior of the South
Nathanael Greene, a Quaker from Rhode Island, was George Washington’s right hand man during the Revolutionary War and twice saved the Continental Army from potential disaster.
Valley Forge: The Critical Winter
Many of us know the myth of Valley Forge - a freezing encampment which shaped the Patriot spirit during the Revolutionary War. But what was the reality of this settlement - and how many survived the winter?
Newburgh 1783: The Conspiracy That Threatened American Democracy
Having defeated the British, gaining its independence after eight bloody years of war, the great American experiment was almost taken over by a military coup before it had properly begun. Yet again, it was George Washington who stepped in – not to win a war this time, but to quell a mutiny.
Independence Hall: The Birthplace of America
Pennsylvania’s State House in Philadelphia, has hosted some of the most important moments in US history. But for a time it threatened to fall into disrepair - until America’s favorite fighting Frenchman gave it a new nickname…
Charles Lee: Washington's Most Arrogant General
Before George Washington led America to Independence, and victory over the British, he needed to defeat insubordination within his own ranks. Major General Charles Lee offered him the chance to do just that at the Battle of Monmouth.
Fife and Drum: Instruments of the Revolution
For armies in the 1700s, the fife and drum were far more than just ceremonial - they were key to battlefield communication, regimental pride, and identity.
Governing The New Republic
The idea of Civic Virtue was central to the Founders' vision for the new republic. It meant that leaders would truly be servants of the people, putting their own interests aside for the good of the nation. But was it an ideal that could be lived up to? A question that’s just as relevant today as it was in 1776.
Revolutionary Weather
During the American Revolutionary War, the weather wasn’t just a background to events. It was a force that often overturned well laid plans and ultimately shaped the course of the war.
Iron Ore: Revolutionary Metal
In the Revolutionary War, equipping an army required huge amounts of iron, for everything from bayonets and cannonballs to cooking pots. That made the Colonial iron industry a high priority for the Patriots – and a target for the British.
Morristown: Ice-cold Winter Encampment
Valley Forge may be the winter encampment that is most remembered as testing Patriot troops to the limits of their endurance – but the winters spent at Morristown in New Jersey were in many ways worse. Find out how the Continental Army still managed to come out fighting in the springtime.
John Paul Jones: America's First Sailor
Denounced as a pirate by the British and a hero by the Patriots, how did John Paul Jones, a Scottish sailor, become a Continental naval legend - and founder of the United States Navy?
Phillis Wheatley: Pioneering Black Poet
Phillis Wheatley, a young enslaved woman, became one of the most celebrated poets in the Amercian colonies. Her writings on faith, slavery and freedom were published around the world and inspire audiences to this day.
Black Soldiers of the Revolutionary War
It’s a little known fact that many black soldiers fought and died on both sides of the conflict in the Revolutionary War. They joined up for many different reasons - some from belief in the cause, some to earn a wage, some to win their freedom.
Tadeusz Kosciuszko: Engineer of the Revolution
Tadeusz Kosciusko was a Polish nobleman; an architect, engineer and idealist who’s genius for fortification was a major asset to the Continentals during the Revolutionary War.
Cornwallis: A Great British General
Who was Charles Cornwallis, Britain’s commander of the Southern Armies in the Revolutionary War? A respected and long serving general, his doomed attempts to win hearts and minds in the Southern colonies led directly to the British defeat at Yorktown.
Thayendanega: Native American Warrior, AKA Joseph Brant
Warrior, scholar and diplomat, Joseph Brant was a powerful leader of the Mohawk Nation. Forced to choose sides at the outbreak of the Revolutionary War, he fought for the future of his people until his death.
Germantown: Victory from a Chaotic Defeat
George Washington’s attack on Germantown, in October 1777, resulted in failure. But how did it change the course of the war?
The Conway Cabal: Washington's Enemies Within
We know George Washington as the nation’s greatest political, and military leader. But during the changing fortunes of war, he faced challenges from within his own ranks, as some sought to replace him.
The Revolutionary Rise of James Forten, Abolitionist
As a teenager, James Forten narrowly avoided being sold into slavery. As an adult, he grew into one of the most prominent African-American businessmen in the whole of 19th century America, and a leading voice in the call for the abolition of the abhorrent trade that had so nearly claimed him.
Fort Ticonderoga: Key to the Continent
At first glance, Fort Ticonderoga is little more than a large fort in upstate New York. But its strategic importance has seen this star-shaped structure become a highly sort-after, and much fought for garrison – earning it the nickname “the key to the continent”.
The Bayonet: The Weapon that Was Turned on the Red Coats
When it came to the psychology of war, 18th century Britain had a secret weapon: the bayonet. This brutal weapon was synonymous with British troops. Its reputation alone was terrifying enough to send colonial soldiers running for cover. The Continental army’s generals soon realized the only way to beat the bayonet, was to embrace its use.
The Missed Opportunities of William Howe
Away from specific battles, Sir William Howe vs George Washington proved to be one of the defining clashes of the Revolutionary War. Howe was a British commander determined to capture the urban strongholds of North America. But he ended up being drawn into a deadly game of cat & mouse by his American counterpart, the future first President.
When Washington Walked Away from Power
Having led his Continental Army to victory over the British, many expected General George Washington to follow the model of European monarchs and dictators by declaring himself the ruler of a new nation: the United States. What he did instead, cemented his place as a different kind of leader, a genuine public servant, and true revolutionary.
Was the Revolution a World War?
The Revolutionary War was not just a battle of the Georges - Washington vs King George III, it was also a war between nations. When France, Spain and the Dutch Republic joined the war, as allies of the new United States, the conflict became global.
The Board of War: Running the Revolution
Keeping an army running smoothly during the Revolutionary War a colossal task. So Congress founded the Board of War to do just that and it played a vital role in defeating the British.
Staten Island: Loyalist Enclave
Staten Island served as a British base for nearly all of the Revolutionary War. It was the perfect staging post for troops, and a good base from which to attack New Jersey. The island’s population was also staunchly Loyalist, which didn’t make them popular with their neighbors.
Washington's Swords: Revolutionary Blades
George Washington's swords might have witnessed more key moments of American history than any other, through his time as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War.
Battle of Stony Point: Midnight Attack
In 1779, the Hudson River was Continental territory, except for the crossing at Stony Point, which had been taken by the British. George Washington devised a daring plan to recapture it.
Army Wives: Unsung Heroines of the Revolution
Did you know that women were present in most Army units during the Revolutionary War? They faced the dangers of battle and the hardships of camp life alongside men. After the war, women’s contributions were largely forgotten. But from the lowest ranks to the top brass, they played a huge role in the Revolution.
Battle of Bennington: Victory in the North
In 1777, a huge British expedition was making its way South from Canada. John Burgoyne, sent a thousand men to Bennington, Vermont, on a foraging mission. They met John Stark's Patriot militia - and suffered a damaging defeat, setting up the calamity at Saratoga.
Army Camps: Home Away From Home
Soldiers in the American Revolutionary War spent most of their time in camps - settlements which popped up wherever the fortunes of war took the troops. But what was life really like in these surprisingly large, mobile villages?
Thomas Gage: The Two-Faced Governor?
Thomas Gage was the British Commander charged with keeping the peace in the colonies. Did he face an impossible task - or did he fail spectacularly in his mission?
Battle of Iron Works Hill: Von Donop's Perilous Party
When the British army defeated the Patriots at Iron Works Hill, Colonel Von Donop and his men celebrated with a wild party. The Continental Army took advantage of their absence and marched on Trenton to win a vital victory.
Patrick Ferguson: The British Bulldog
Major Patrick ‘Bulldog’ Ferguson was one of the most fierce, and fiercely hated, British commanders of the Revolutionary War. But when he tried to subdue Patriot activity in the Appalachian mountains, he took a step too far…
The Battle of Valcour Island
In 1776, Benedict Arnold and a small force of Continentals under his command were engaged in a desperate shipbuilding race with the British at Lake Champlain – with the outcome of the war hanging in the balance.
Cannons: The Patriots' Not So Secret Weapon
In the Revolutionary War, no side could dominate the battlefield without expert use of cannons. While the Continentals began the conflict with only a few outdated relics, by the time of the Siege of Yorktown, they had built a formidable and professional artillery corps.
John Laurens: Defender of Freedom
A look at the brief but bright life of John Laurens – close friend of Alexander Hamilton, true believer in the Continental cause, and passionate advocate for the ending of slavery.
The Burning of the Gaspee: The Spark That Lit the Revolution
The burning of the Gaspee was a violent incident between Rhode Island smugglers and the Royal Navy in 1772, which sparked the Boston Tea Party and the American Revolution.
American Privateers: Pirates or Protectors?
At the time of the Revolutionary War, naval warfare wasn’t just the preserve of governments. Private businesses could also send armed vessels out to sea. It was a risky business, but American privateers inflicted millions of dollars of loss on British supply lines – making some very rich in the process.
The Battle of the Chesapeake
The Battle of the Chesapeake was a fiercely fought sea battle between the British and French Navies. At stake wasn’t just control of the Chesapeake Bay, but the fate of the British Southern Campaign and the entire Revolutionary War.
Princeton: Washington's Key Victory
After winning the Battle of Trenton, George Washington was determined to keep the initiative. He marched his troops through the night towards Princeton, where he faced the British army once again, and won one of the key victories of the Revolutionary War.
Oriskany: End of the Iroquois Confederacy
The Battle of Oriskany was one of the most bloody of the entire Revolutionary War. It was fought between Patriot militia and members of the Iroquois Confederacy who had been forced to take sides. It was a bitter encounter, from which there were no winners.
Regimental Flags: Symbols of Pride
For soldiers on the battlefields of the Revolutionary War, the regimental flag was essential, both as a way of keeping their bearings in the chaos of the fight and a way of projecting their identity.
The Battle of Red Bank: Von Donop's Downfall
In October 1777, two small undermanned forts on the Delaware River were all that were stopping the British from gaining complete control of the area around Philadelphia. But while the British attack had strength in numbers and a Royal Navy backup, it was led by the impulsive Colonel von Donop, a man determined to regain his honor at all costs…
Francis Marion: The Swamp Fox
In 1780, when the British took Charleston, it looked as if the rest of South Carolina might end up in Loyalist hands. But a band of Patriot partisans, operating out of the Pee Dee River swamp areas, kept humiliating the British with repeated surprise attacks. Their leader? Francis Marion, the Swamp Fox.
Robert Morris: Financier of the Revolution
Robert Morris was a shipping tycoon, financier and Founding Father who was crucial to the Continental war effort. But was he genuinely committed to the cause – or just trying to make a quick buck?
Joseph Plumb Martin: Private Yankee Doodle
What were the day to day struggles faced by the common soldiers of the Continental Army? How did they stay alive? The memoir of Joseph Plumb Martin - or ‘Private Yankee Doodle’, veteran of battles and harsh winters - paints a vivid picture.
Lord George Germain: Long Distance Government
Have you ever tried to video call a friend on bad wi-fi? What if you had to direct a war from 3500 miles away - and the communication lag was two months?! That's what Lord George Germain, the British Secretary of State for America had to deal with during the Revolutionary War.
Shays' Rebellion: Revolt Against the Revolution
After the Revolutionary War was won, Daniel Shays led a thousand-strong rebellion of disgruntled farmers who almost plunged the new nation of the United States into civil war in Massachusetts. Their actions, although defeated, led to a reassessment of values that informed the creation of the US Constitution. They called themselves ‘Regulators’ - and, by that moniker, they succeeded.
The Hessians: George III's German Mercenaries
The Hessians were one of the most feared armies in 18th Century Europe. This elite group of soldiers from modern-day Germany traveled to America to fight for the British in the Revolutionary War. But more than 3,000 of their number never returned home, ending a century-long Hessian history as troops for hire.
New Jersey: The Birthplace of Women's Suffrage?
When women finally won the right to vote in 1920, it wasn’t the first time in the nation’s history that they’d been able to cast ballots - for a period after the revolution, women in New Jersey could, and did, vote.
John Montresor: Mapping the American Revolution
Eighteenth century military commanders did not have the benefits of technology to learn the position of their enemies in the field. They relied on the skill and hard work of cartographers: map makers like John Montresor.
George III: The King Who Lost the Colonies
Before the Revolutionary War took hold, there was hope amongst several American colonists that the British King, George III, would ultimately intervene to stop his government imposing their will on the North American continent. But those American revolutionaries had overestimated both the monarch’s power over parliament and his desire to avoid conflict.
Somerset v. Stewart: Dawn of Abolitionism
James Somerset was an enslaved man who was taken taken to London in the eighteenth century. His friends decided to challenge whether slavery was legal through the English courts - the result changed perceptions of slavery forever.
Was the American Revolution a Civil War?
As anti-taxation protests turned to war in the Thirteen Colonies, even moderates ended up being forced to take sides. So was the American Revolution a civil war as well as an independence movement?
The Battle of Cowpens: Morgan Vs Tarleton
The Battle of Cowpens was a showdown between two talented field commanders - Continental General Daniel Morgan and British Colonel Banastre Tarleton. With armies of equal size, they both thought they could win. Only one of them was right.
City Tavern: Bar-room Base for the Revolution
If there’s one building in the United States that could claim to be the birthplace of American democracy, it would have to be the City Tavern, Philadelphia. Built to be a grand meeting place for the movers and shakers of the time, it was the informal center of politics right through the years of the Revolutionary War.
Ninety-Six: A Town Divided by War
The small town of Ninety-Six, in South Carolina, was the site of the first battle of the Revolutionary War in the south. Later in the war the town's military fort came under siege from Nathanael Greene's Patriots. The site can still be visited today.
Western Department: Frontier of the Revolution
In the American Revolutionary War, the Western Department was tasked with trying to defend the huge Western frontier of the Colonies. Short of men and supplies, they faced a formidable enemy – the Native American nations of the Ohio territory and beyond.
Molly Pitcher: The Heroine of Monmouth
The story of Molly Pitcher - cannon firing heroine of the Battle of Monmouth - is famous. But is it a myth? Or was there a real Molly Pitcher?
Thomas Hutchinson: Governor of a Rebellious Colony
Did you know that during the Revolutionary War, not all colonists wanted to become independent? Those who chose to remain loyal to the British crown included Massachusetts Lieutenant Governor Thomas Hutchinson. But was he a traitor - or simply a public servant doing his job?
Revolutionary Firepower: Muskets & Rifles
On the battlefields of the Revolutionary War, a new weapon conveyed deadly advantages - the rifle. So why did the musket remain the weapon of choice for infantry?
Lord North: Britain's Worst Prime Minister?
When Lord North became Prime Minister of Britain in 1770, the protests in the Thirteen Colonies were just a minor inconvenience. But his response to the Boston Tea Party started a war that would ultimately end his career.
Colonel Tye: Scourge of Patriots
Escaping slavery at a young age, ‘Colonel Tye’ became an extremely effective guerilla commander, fighting for the British. Nobody could stop his Black Brigade - and they didn’t just raid Patriot targets, they also freed many slaves.
Banastre Tarleton: The Bloody Butcher of Waxhaws
Perhaps no fighter on Revolutionary War battlefields created such a name for themselves as Redcoat cavalry officer Banastre Tarleton. His aggressive tactics earned him the devotion of his men, and the burning hatred of the Patriots.
John Burgoyne: Gentleman General
When General John Burgoyne took command of the British Army in Canada in 1777, he was confident of success. He had the command experience and the plan to end the war. So how did his campaign unravel so spectacularly?
Stirling's 400: The Men Who Saved Washington's Army
In 1776, the British intended to end the Revolutionary War in North America swiftly and decisively. But their plans to crush the rebellion in New York were thwarted by a small group of soldiers: Stirling’s 400.
U.S. Department of Agriculture
Founded by Abraham Lincoln during the Civil War, the Department of Agriculture safeguards farming standards and boosts rural development through a series of progressive programs.
Department of Transportation
The Department of Transportation ensures the equitable and safe transport of goods and people along our roads, railways, skies, waterways and airspace. So, why did it take so long to come into existence?
Joint Chiefs
When the going gets tough, the president calls on the Joint Chiefs of Staff, an advisory council to help make important military decisions.
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court
The top ranking officer of the US federal judiciary, the Chief Justice presides over the US Supreme Court. But how did the role come into being and what are his or her roles and responsibilities?
Speaker of the House
As the head of the House of Representatives, the Speaker of the House is one of the most important roles in the United States government.
Library of Congress
Home to millions of books and manuscripts, the Library of Congress is a hub of culture and knowledge, pioneering digital accessibility while safeguarding America's rich history.
The Federal Reserve
Born from a series of financial crises in the 20th century, the Federal Reserve, or Fed, controls monetary policy in the United States to ensure economic growth through maximum employment and fair pricing.
The Federal Election Commission
How do you know that the politicians you vote for will represent your interests in office – and not those of powerful corporations? Well, there’s a law for that, and an independent regulatory agency: the Federal Election Commission.
NASA: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration, aka NASA, has been at the forefront of science, technology, and space exploration since 1958. Its work remains an inspiration to millions of people around the world.
Department of Homeland Security
Established in 2002, the Department of Homeland Security might be the youngest of all the federal government’s departments, but its work to safeguard “the American people, our homeland, and our values” couldn't be more important.
The Department of the Treasury
The Department of the Treasury, inspired by its first secretary, Alexander Hamilton, is responsible for managing the production of money and maintaining the crucial systems underpinning the financial infrastructure of the United States.
Department of Commerce
The Department of Commerce is one of the largest, most powerful of U.S. government agencies. Its mission? To “create the conditions for economic growth and opportunities for all communities.”
Department of the Interior
Many government departments have a focused mission, but the Department of the Interior is known as the "Department of Everything Else." So what are its responsibilities and how does it keep our country in check?
Social Security
When times get tough, Social Security provides a vital financial lifeline for U.S. citizens in need. But how did this revolutionary legislation come into being and what benefits does it provide?
National Archives and Records Administration
The National Archives and Records Administration is an independent federal agency dedicated to the preservation of historic government records. With storage facilities across the United States, NARA's contents give us an insight into our country's history.
Congressional Investigations
Congressional Investigations have uncovered some serious wrongdoing over the past 200 years. But where does Congress get the power to conduct investigations and how has it used that power throughout U.S. history?
Benito Mussolini
From a strong-willed and impetuous child, to the founder of one of the most violent political parties, Italian Fascist leader Benito Musollini took his country to war – and paid the ultimate price. This is a timeline of his life.
Adolf Hitler
This is a timeline of the life of one of the most divisive leaders in history. Nazi dictator Adolf Hitler’s racist and aggressive policies brought the world to the brink of destruction. His opportunistic rise to power, acts as a warning to us all.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
This is a timeline of the life of American president, Franklin Roosevelt, from 1882 to 1945. His confident Presidential leadership style allowed him to guide the country through one of its most turbulent periods and the Great Depression of the 1930s.
This is a timeline of the life of Queen Cleopatra, the last ruling Pharaoh of ancient Egypt. She is remembered for her strategic alliances with powerful generals of the Roman Empire.
Rosa Parks
This is a timeline of the life of Rosa Parks, a woman who made history with a single act of courage, when she refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in 1955, a time when the U.S. was racially segregated. Her bravery inspired tens of thousands of African Americans to protest by refusing to take the city’s buses in Montgomery, Alabama.
Kingdoms of Southeast Asia
This is a timeline of the history of the ancient kingdoms of Southeast Asia, from 207 BCE to 1511. At a crossroads of trade and culture, powerful kingdoms began to emerge in the region. The kingdoms were heavily influenced by religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism and later Islam.
Early Islamic Empires
This is a timeline of the history of the Early Islamic Empires over six centuries, from the year 634 to 1258. New Islamic empires spread from Arabia through Central Asia, North Africa, and Spain, bringing with them the Muslim religion, and advancement in scientific and medical innovation.
Ancient Greece
This is a timeline of the history of Ancient Greece, the first great civilization in Europe. During its high point, the Greeks made advancements in science, philosophy, literature and democracy.
Nelson Mandela
This is a timeline of the life of Nelson Mandela, South Africa’s first Black head of state. A tireless and dedicated activist, committed to bringing Apartheid to an end, made him one of the world’s most beloved leaders.
Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay
In 1953, Edmund Hillary, a beekeeper from New Zealand, and Tenzing Norgay, a guide from the Sherpa community, achieved what was once thought impossible: climbing the highest mountain in the world. This is a timeline of the first successful ascent of Everest.
Ancient Egypt
This is a timeline of the history of Ancient Egypt, from 4500 BCE - 30 BCE. The nation was governed by a king called a Pharaoh, believed to represent the gods on Earth. The civilisation lasted for thousands of years and left behind the Great Pyramids which can still be seen in Egypt today.
This is a timeline about the life of Pocahontas, daughter of the chief of the Powhatan tribe, who played a crucial role in the relationship between the Native Americans and the English settlers in 17th century Virginia.
Aircraft and Aviation
This is a timeline of the evolution of aircraft and aviation, from the early experiments with hot air balloons in 1783 to the advancements of modern-day aviation. From the Wright Brothers' historic flight in 1903 to the development of jet engines, supersonic passenger jets, and unmanned drones, aviation continues to push the boundaries of innovation and shape the way we travel and explore the skies.
The Pacific War
This is a timeline of the Pacific War, a significant conflict that took place from 1941 to 1945. It involved the United States and its Allies battling against Japan in the Pacific region, ultimately leading to Japan's surrender and the end of World War II.
Ancient Indian Empires
This is a timeline of the rise and fall of great empires in the Indian subcontinent, from 321 BCE to 499 CE. These empires saw the spread of Buddhism, the growth of Hinduism, the flourishing of art and literature, and significant mathematical and astronomical advancements.
Greta Thunberg
This is a timeline of the life of Greta Thunberg and her rise as a global climate activist. Swedish activist Greta Thunberg's lone school strike for the climate in 2018 evolved into a worldwide movement, inspiring millions to take action against global warming and demanding immediate change from world leaders.
Harriet Tubman
This is a timeline of the life of Harriet Tubman, one of the United States’ bravest and most outspoken abolitionists. During the course of her career, she rescued almost 700 Black men, women and children and went on to champion women’s suffrage.
Michinomiya Hirohito
This is a timeline of the remarkable life of Michinomiya Hirohito, Japan's longest-serving Emperor. Born into privilege, and thrust into power aged just 25, his decision to surrender in 1945 marked the end of World War II.
Che Guevara
This is a timeline of events in the life of revolutionary leader, Che Guevara, from 1928 to 1967. He is remembered for his role in the Cuban Revolution and his strong opposition to U.S influence in developing nations.
Mahatma Gandhi
This is a timeline of events in the life of Mahatma Gandhi from his birth in 1869 to his death in 1948. A leader of the Indian independence movement, Gandhi was a revolutionary who inspired non-violent resistance to British colonial rule.
Christopher Columbus
This is a timeline of the life of the Italian explorer, Christopher Columbus. An admiral, and navigator, he set sail westwards from Spain in 1492 with the aim of arriving in the Far East, but instead, landed in the Americas, then unknown to Europeans. Seen as a hero and pioneer by some, by others he is seen as someone whose arrival brought suffering to people living in the Americas.
Emily Dickinson
This is a timeline of the life of one of the United States’ most innovative and unique poets, Emily Dickinson. Born in Amherst, Massachusetts, she was a private and introverted woman. Her extraordinary poetry was only published following her death.
Louis Pasteur
This is a timeline of one of the most important scientists in the history of microbiology. Pasteur’s relentless pursuit of knowledge, and groundbreaking research into the causes of disease, helped change our world forever.
China's Golden Age
This is a timeline of the history of China’s Golden Age from 618 to 1279. The Tang and Song dynasties were periods of significant economic and cultural progress that lasted for more than 600 years and together are considered as China's Golden Age.
French Revolution
This is a timeline of the French Revolution and its aftermath, from 1789 to 1799. It saw ordinary working people rise up against corrupt rulers in the name of liberty, equality and fraternity. After one-thousand years of royal rule, a new republic was formed – but how long would it last?
The Voyage of RMS Titanic
This is a timeline of the tragic events of the RMS Titanic's maiden voyage from Southampton, England to New York in April 1912. Its fateful collision with an iceberg led to the loss of more than 1,500 lives.
The Storming of the Bastille
This is a timeline of the storming of the Bastille prison in Paris during a summer of unrest in France in July 1789 - and how the events that followed led to revolution and the end of an era.
The Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution was a period of significant change in human history that began in Britain in the 1700s and lasted for two centuries. It was marked by the rise of machines and manufacturing, which transformed the way people lived and worked, and led to the widespread adoption of new technologies and innovations.
The Birth of the United States
This is a timeline of the American Revolution, depicting events from the first sparks of revolt in 1770, to the first presidency in 1789. This was a period of intense conflict between the colonists of the Thirteen Colonies, and their British rulers, which ultimately led to the creation of a new nation: the United States of America.
African Kingdoms
This is a timeline of the rise and fall of Africa's once powerful kingdoms. Built on trade in resources such as gold, ivory, and salt, as well as enslaved people, these kingdoms were ultimately conquered by European nations in the Scramble for Africa in the 19th century, with only Liberia and Ethiopia remaining independent.
The Vikings
This is a timeline of the history of the Vikings, from 793 to 1066. Fierce warriors and raiders, the Viking people they left their homelands in Denmark, Sweden and Norway to invade new territories across Europe.
The Korean War
This is a timeline of the Korean War, a conflict that erupted in the 1950s between North and South Korea. The war saw the involvement of international powers, including the United States, China, and the Soviet Union, and resulted in a stalemate and the division of the Korean peninsula into two separate countries.
Marie Curie
This is a timeline of scientist Marie Curie’s remarkable life and career, from 1867 to 1934. At a time when women faced numerous barriers, Marie Curie defied the odds and revolutionized science with her pioneering research on radioactivity, becoming the first woman to win a Nobel Prize.
Mary Seacole
This is a timeline of the life of Jamaica-born nurse Mary Seacole. Dedicating her life to caring for the sick, she was known as “Mother Seacole” by those she tended during the Crimean War.
William Shakespeare
This is a timeline of the life of William Shakespeare, the Elizabethan playwright, poet, and actor. He is considered to be the greatest writer in the English language and wrote around 37 plays and 154 poems during his lifetime, many of which have become literary classics and have shaped the way we use the English language today.
Joan of Arc
This is a timeline of events in the life of Joan of Arc, from 1412 to 1431. A deeply religious women, she believed God wanted her to lead the French army against the English during the Hundred Years' War. She was burned at the stake for heresy and witchcraft.
Alexander the Great
This is a timeline of the life of Alexander the Great, one of the most successful military generals in ancient history. He became king of Macedon at the age of 20 and went on to create the largest empire ever assembled at that point in history, which included parts of Europe, Africa, Asia, and stretched from Greece to northern India.
Julius Caesar
This is a timeline of events in the life of Julius Caesar, a powerful general and ambitious politician of the Roman Republic. He was known for his military conquests and declared himself 'Dictator for life' before his brutal murder in 44 BCE.
The Reformation
The Reformation was a 16th and 17th century movement challenging the Catholic Church in Europe. Led by Martin Luther, it sparked the rise of Protestantism and led to religious conflicts across Europe. It ended with a series of treaties in 1648, however the consequences of the reformation were devastating for the population of Europe.
The Mongol Empire
This is a timeline of the Mongol Empire. Founded by the invincible Genghis Khan, it was the largest land empire in history, spanning across Europe, the Middle East and Asia. Genghis Khan led his army of horsemen to many victories, ultimately uniting the nomadic tribes to form the Mongol Empire, and later conquering China to establish the Yuan Dynasty.
Early North America
This is a timeline of the history of the first people to arrive in North America in around 25,000 BCE and how their civilisations developed over thousands of years.
This is a timeline of the history of Mesopotamia from 6000 BCE to 539 BCE. Described as the cradle of civilization, the Mesopotamians invented organised religion, royalty, armies and law.
This timeline takes us on a whistle-stop journey of life on our planet. We travel from the Big Bang, 13.8 billion years ago, to the time of the dinosaurs - and on to the evolution of the first humans and the creation of the first written records, around 5000 years ago. It's a time known as prehistory.
Emmeline Pankhurst
This is a timeline of Emmeline Pankhurst’s life, from her birth in 1858 to her death in 1928. A suffragette and leader of the Women's Social and Political Union, she fought tirelessly for women's right to vote, leaving a lasting impact on the pursuit of gender equality.
Olaudah Equiano
This is a timeline of abolitionist Olaudah Equiano who was kidnapped and enslaved as a child. Buying his freedom aged 21, he dedicated his life to abolishing slavery and his famous autobiography heavily influenced public support advocating the end of slavery.
World War I: Part One
This is a timeline of the first half of World War I, from 1882 to 1916, as alliances form, assassinations spark conflicts, and trench warfare becomes the norm. From the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and the brutal warfare on the Western Front, this war becomes a deadly struggle that shapes the course of history.
The US Frontier
This is a timeline of US expansion from 1739 to 1869, as explorers, settlers, and fortune seekers pushed westward in search of land and riches. From the first European expedition to the Rocky Mountains to the completion of the transcontinental railroad, the westward expansion shaped the history and interactions with Native American communities.
The Vietnam War
This is a timeline of the causes and outcomes of the Vietnam War, which lasted from 1945 to 1975. From the declaration of independence by Ho Chi Minh and the division of Vietnam to the US involvement and the eventual fall of Saigon, the war left a devastating impact on the country and its people.
The 1920s
This is a timeline of the Roaring Twenties - a decade of unrivaled optimism and plenty, as many Americans – flush with cash – luxuriated in new sights, sounds and ways of life. But all came to an end as the economic boom turned to bust.
Rebecca Lee Crumpler
This is a timeline of the life of the first African American woman to qualify as a doctor, Rebecca Lee Crumpler. Crumpler dedicated her life to treating women and children who lived in poverty, and her book, Medical Discourses, helped others to care for themselves.
Sitting Bull
This is a timeline of events in the life of Sitting Bull, from 1831 to 1890. A Sioux warrior chief and holy man, Sitting Bull fought to protect his tribe's land from being taken by the U.S. government and is remembered as one of the greatest Native American warriors in history.
Vincent van Gogh
This is a timeline of events in the life of Dutch artist Vincent van Gogh, from 1853 - 1890. Known for his vivid and unique oil paintings, Vincent van Gogh found it hard to make a living from his art and struggled with his mental health during his lifetime.
World War I: Part Two
This is a timeline of events during the second half of World War I, from 1916 to 1919. From the devastating Battle of the Somme to the introduction of U-boats and the eventual signing of the Treaty of Versailles, this period witnesses significant battles, shifting alliances, and the profound impact of the war on nations and their people.
The Scientific Revolution
This is a timeline of the Scientific Revolution, a period of great scientific advancement in Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries. Marked by a rejection of traditional ideas and a questioning of religious beliefs, it led to a new approach to experimentation and significant breakthroughs in fields like biology, astronomy, and physics.
The Soviet Union
This is a timeline of the rise and fall of the Soviet Union, from 1905 to 1991. From the revolution in 1917 to the dissolution in 1991, the Soviet Union emerged as the world's first communist state under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin and later Joseph Stalin, but internal struggles, economic challenges, and demands for independence led to its eventual disbandment.
The 1930s
This is a timeline of the 1930s, a decade marked by immense challenges and hardships, from the Great Depression to World War II. The 1930s had a huge impact on nations and families as millions struggled to adapt to changing circumstances. It ended with the world to the brink of destruction.
John Logie Baird
This is a timeline of Scottish engineer and inventor John Logie Baird’s life, from 1888 to 1946. From his early experiments in transmitting moving images to the development of color and three-dimensional television, Baird's groundbreaking innovations revolutionized the entertainment and technology landscape, shaping our world today.
Charles Darwin
This is a timeline of the events in the life and work of English naturalist Charles Darwin, from 1831 to 1882. Darwin's study of the natural world showed how life developed through evolution. His book 'On the Origin of Species' would prove to be one of the most influential scientific works in history.
Martin Luther King Jr
Martin Luther King Jr, an influential activist and Christian minister, led the Civil Rights Movement to fight for the rights of African Americans through the 1950s and 60s. He believed in non-violent protest and his work helped to tear down racial segregation and inspire generations of activists seeking Civil Rights and a more equal society.
Joseph Stalin
This is a timeline of the life of Joseph Stalin, leader of the Soviet Union. Shaped by revolutionary forces, he rose through the ranks of the Communist Party to become one of the world's most powerful leaders. He led USSR through the horrors of the Second World War, fighting on the side of the Allies in the defeat of Germany.
The Cuban Missile Crisis
This is a timeline depicting the events of the Cuban Missile Crisis as they unfolded from 1952 to 1963. When the Soviets installed nuclear missiles on the Caribbean island of Cuba in 1692, a diplomatic standoff between the U.S. and the Soviet Union began. Tensions rose and the world watched as nuclear war loomed. A deal was finally struck on October 28th, 1962 to end the crisis.
Race to The Moon
This is a timeline of the key events in the Space Race between the USA and the USSR during the Cold War. Beginning in 1947, the US and the Soviet Union began to develop technology in order to explore space, and in 1969, the US lands the first astronaut on the moon.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
This is a timeline of the life of composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart from 1756 to 1791. One of the most celebrated and influential composers in the history of music, Mozart began his musical journey as a young child. Despite his untimely death at the age of 35, he left behind a legacy of over 600 compositions, including some of the most renowned works in Classical music.
Empires of the Americas
This is a timeline of the history of the Empires of the Americas, from 3100 BCE to the fall of the last standing empires in the 16th century.
Winston Churchill
One of the finest leaders of his generation, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill’s inspirational speeches – and steadfast self-confidence – helped rouse a nation to war and ultimately save the world from the destructive forces of Fascism.
The Cold War
This is a timeline of events in the history of the Cold War, from 1945 to 1991. The Cold War was a period of tension between the United States and the Soviet Union after the end of World War II, as they tried to prevent each other from gaining too much power, with the threat of nuclear weapons looming.
Exploring the World
This is a timeline of the events in the history of the Age of Exploration from the early 1400s to 1521. During the 15th and 16th centuries, European explorers set sail to discover new lands, great riches and exotic goods, leading to the discovery of trade routes across the world and the first circumnavigation of the globe.
This is a timeline of the history of the Renaissance, from 1305 to 1543. The Renaissance was a period of cultural, artistic and scientific "rebirth" in 14th century northern Italy, which saw the emergence of new and innovative art, literature, and scientific discoveries that laid the foundation for the modern world.
The Crusades
This is a timeline of the battles and events of The Crusades, from 1095 to 1291. A series of military expeditions in which European Christians sought to retake the Holy Land of Jerusalem from Muslim control.
The Age of Dinosaurs
Dinosaurs roamed on Earth for around 165 million years and existed for around three distinct periods. A catastrophic event 66 million years ago, which wiped out more than half of life on Earth, including the dinosaurs, is believed to be caused by meteorites crashing into Earth.
Isaac Newton
This is a timeline of the life of English mathematician and scientist Isaac Newton, a key figure in the Scientific Revolution in the 16th and 17th centuries. Most famous for his theory of gravity, his work on the laws of motion changed our world forever.
What is the 4th of July?
Independence Day takes place every year on the 4th of July. It celebrates the day that the Founders of the United States declared their independence from Great Britain.
Mapp v. Ohio: Illegal Search and Seizure
Mapp v. Ohio was a landmark U.S. Supreme Court case that safeguarded the Fourth Amendment right to privacy after a Cleveland woman was wrongly convicted following an illegal search of her home.
What are Economic Systems?
Different economic systems have been developed to meet the needs and wants of the citizens of a country or society. These systems have distinct advantages and downsides for producers, consumers, and governments.
What are Unalienable Rights?
What are unalienable rights and why are they so important? In this video, we explore why Thomas Jefferson included them for the first time in the Declaration of Independence.
What is the Magna Carta?
It was written over 1,000 years ago, and commissioned by an English King – so what makes the Magna Carta one of the most important documents in US history?
What is Constitution Day?
Constitution Day takes place every year on September 17. It celebrates the written document that outlines the rights and freedoms of U.S. citizens.
Plessy v. Ferguson: Separate but Equal
Plessy v. Ferguson was a landmark U.S. Supreme Court decision that established the legal doctrine of “separate but equal”. It was a ruling that enabled many states to enact racial segregation laws for decades to come.
Korematsu v. United States: Was Internment Legal?
Korematsu v. United States was a controversial U.S. Supreme Court decision made in the aftermath of the attack on Pearl Harbor. It established that the U.S. government could intern Japanese Americans during WWII as a result of Executive Order 9066.
Miranda v. Arizona: What are your Miranda Rights?
“You have the right to remain silent. Anything you say can and will be used against you in a court of law.” Miranda rights are an essential part of any lawful arrest, thanks to a landmark U.S. Supreme Court decision that changed the course of policing.
Who Founded the Republican Party?
In the United States’ two-party system, the Republican Party competes with the Democratic Party for political power. But when was it formed and how has it changed over the years?
What is the Mayflower Compact?
A short agreement by the Pilgrims and other colonists on board the Mayflower set in motion a system of government that inspired our country’s founding documents.
Who was George Washington?
The story of George Washington’s life and legacy as father of our country.
What is the English Bill of Rights?
The English Bill of Rights curbed the power and influence of the English monarchy and gave more power to their subjects. It’s the basis for the rights and freedoms we enjoy today.
Marbury v. Madison: What is Judicial Review?
The U.S. Supreme Court decides if laws made in the United States violate the Constitution or not. It’s called judicial review and it’s a power that was granted to the Supreme Court by the Supreme Court itself – thanks to a landmark case in 1803, Marbury v. Madison.
What is Common Sense?
It’s one of the most important documents in US history, but how did Thomas Paine’s 47-page pamphlet, Common Sense, turn the tide of the American Revolutionary War?
What are the Different Forms of Government?
Every country on Earth is run by some form of government – but there are many different kinds, from autocracies and oligarchies to direct and representative democracies.
Hazelwood v. Kuhlmeier: Free Speech in School
The First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution protects the right to free speech. But when student journalists in Missouri wrote a series of articles on teen sex and divorce in 1983, their school appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court for the right to censor the content – and won.
The Pledge of Allegiance
All across the United States, its citizens regularly stand, with hands on heart, to make the Pledge of Allegiance. But what is it, what does it mean and why is it so important?
What is Martin Luther King Jr. Day?
MLK Day takes place every year on the third Monday of January. It's a time to celebrate the life and work of Civil Rights leader Martin Luther King Jr., who brought Americans together in the name of racial equality.
What is Patriot Day?
Patriot Day takes place every year on September 11 to honor and remember the first responders, and those who lost their lives, on 9/11.
Branches of Government
The federal government of the United States of America is split into three separate and distinct branches. But what do the Executive, the Legislature and the Judiciary do and why are they necessary?
What is Medal of Honor Day?
Medal of Honor Day takes place every year on the 25th of March. It celebrates brave U.S. military service people who went above and beyond to protect our way of life.
In re Gault: Juvenile Rights
In re Gault was a landmark U.S. Supreme Court decision that ensured juveniles accused of a crime would receive the same Fourteenth Amendment rights as adults. It all stemmed from a teenager making a prank call.
Who Founded the Democratic Party?
It’s the oldest political party in the United States, but how was the Democratic Party formed and what contributions has it made to U.S. society since?
Why did the Colonies Declare Independence?
In the late 1770s, U.S. patriots banded together to declare independence from Great Britain. But why did they want their independence and what kind of country did they want the United States to be?
Who was Daniel Webster?
Lawyer, orator and politician, Daniel Webster was one of the United States’ most famous and accomplished people in the 19th century. But what made him so special and how did he help change America?
Mottos and Symbols
A motto is a saying that stands for what a person, an organization or a country believes in. The United States of America has had two mottos. Let’s learn what they are and what they mean.
What is Veterans Day?
Veterans Day takes place every year on November 11 to honor the bravery and sacrifice of all those men and women who fought and died for their country, during war and peacetime.
What is Memorial Day?
Memorial Day takes place every year on the last Monday of May to honor and remember members of the armed forces who fought and died for the United States.
Who was Benjamin Franklin?
Benjamin Franklin wasn't just a founder of the United States, he was also a writer, inventor, scientist, statesman, and a huge celebrity in the thirteen colonies.
Let's Go To New Jersey
In the Northeastern region of the United States is the state of New Jersey. It’s famous for farming, boardwalks and diners. Let’s find out more.
Let's Go To Minnesota
In the Northern midwest region of the United States is the state of Minnesota. It’s famous for the Great Lakes, the Twin Cities and cheese curds. Let’s find out more.
Let's Go To Alaska
In the North Eastern region of the United States is the state of Alaska. It’s famous for glaciers, dog sledding and the Northern Lights. Let’s find out more.
Let's Go To Washington
In the Pacific Northwest region of the United States is the state of Washington. It’s famous for forests, basketball and apples. Let’s find out more.
Let's Go To Missouri
In the Midwestern region of the United States is the state of Missouri. It’s famous for the Missouri River, the St. Louis Gateway Arch and toasted ravioli. Let’s find out more.
Let's Go To New Mexico
In the Southwestern region of the United States is the state of New Mexico. It’s famous for dinosaur fossils, the Rio Grande River and the largest balloon festival in the world. Let’s find out more.
Let's Go To Montana
In the Northwest region of the United States is the state of Montana. It’s famous for precious minerals, the Badlands and delicious berries. Let’s find out more.
Let's Go To Virginia
In the Southeastern region of the United States is the state of Virginia. It’s famous for being the birthplace of the nation, the state that produced the most US Presidents and wild ponies. Let’s find out more.
Let's Go To Massachusetts
In the Eastern region of the United States is the state of Massachusetts. It’s famous for Cape Cod, the Salem Witch Trials and the oldest university in the country. Let’s find out more.
Let's Go To Maryland
In the Eastern region of the United States is the state of Maryland. It’s famous for Chesapeake Bay, crab cakes and as The Star-Spangled Banner. Let’s find out more.
Let's Go To Colorado
In the Northeastern region of the United States is the state of New York. It’s famous for Niagara Falls, delicious cheesecake and the Big Apple. Let’s find out more.
Let's Go To Mississippi
In the Northern midwest region of the United States is the state of Mississippi. It’s famous for magnolias, the mighty Mississippi River and blues music. Let’s find out more.
Let's Go To South Dakota
In the Upper Midwest region of the United States is the state of South Dakota. It’s famous for Mount Rushmore, ancient fossils and the Black Hills Powwow cultural festival. Let’s find out more.
Let's Go To Louisiana
In the Southeast region of the United States is the state of Louisiana. It’s famous for spicy Cajun food, Mardi Gras festival and jazz music. Let’s find out more.
Let's Go To South Carolina
In the Southern region of the United States is the state of South Carolina. It’s famous for palmetto trees, ancient shell rings and Frogmore Stew. Let’s find out more.
Let's Go To Maine
In the Eastern region of the United States is the state of Maine. It’s famous for lighthouses, lobster rolls and Fort Western. Let’s find out more.
Let's Go To New York
In the Northeastern region of the United States is the state of New York. It’s famous for Niagara Falls, delicious cheesecake and the Big Apple. Let’s find out more.
Let's Go To Illinois
In the midwest of the United States is the state of Illinois. It’s famous for its delicious deep dish pizzas, freezing winters and the Great Lakes. Let’s go to Illinois!
Let's Go To Nebraska
In the Midwestern region of the United States is the state of Nebraska. It’s famous for corn, the Sand Hills and a very unusual public sculpture called Carhenge. Let’s find out more.
Let's Go To Wyoming
In the Mountain West subregion of the United States is the state of Wyoming. It’s famous for bison, gushing geysers and giving women the vote. Let’s find out more.
Let's Go To Washington, DC
In the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States is the district of Washington, DC. It’s famous for its impressive government buildings and monuments, like a giant marble statue of former President, Abraham Lincoln. Let’s find out more.
Let's Go To California
In the Western region of the United States is the state of California. It’s famous for making movies, the Golden Gate Bridge and the tallest trees in the world! Let’s find out more.
Let's Go To Ohio
In the Midwestern region of the United States is the state of Ohio. It’s famous for US Presidents, Halls of Fame and many great Inventors. Let’s find out more.
Let's Go To Alabama
In the Southeast region of the United States is the state of Alabama. It’s famous for cotton, the struggle for Civil Rights and space travel. Let’s find out more.
Let's Go To Arizona
In the Southwestern region of the United States is the state of Arizona. It’s famous for the Grand Canyon, the Hoover Dam and chimichangas. Let’s take a closer look.
Let's Go To Guam, American Samoa, and The Northern Mariana Islands
The Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, the Virgin Islands and American Samoa are organized unincorporated territories of the United States. They’re famous for all kinds of things, from sandy beaches and indigenous culture to unique animals, like the tooth-billed penguin. Let’s find out more.
Let's Go To Wisconsin
In the Midwest region of the United States is the state of Wisconsin. It’s famous for lakes, architect Frank Lloyd Wright and more than 600 varieties of cheese. Let’s find out more.
Let's Go To Vermont
In the Northeastern region of the United States is the state of Vermont. It’s famous for mountains, agriculture and maple syrup. Let’s find out more.
Let's Go To Nevada
In the Eastern region of the United States is the state of Nevada. It’s famous for silver, the Hoover Dam and Las Vegas. Let’s find out more.
Let's Go To Arkansas
In the South Central region of the United States is the state of Arkansas. It’s famous for diamonds, the Ozark Mountains and Mockingbirds. Let’s find out more.
Let's Go To Iowa
In the Midwest region of the United States is the state of Iowa. It’s famous for corn, the Iowa Caucus political event and the oldest State Fair in the country. Let’s find out more.
Let's Go To Oregon
In the American Northwest is the state of Oregon. It’s famous for its many volcanoes, and as the location of the largest mushroom in the world – it’s two miles long! Let’s find out more.
Let's Go To Indiana
In the Midwest region of the United States is the state of Indiana. It’s famous for rolling hills, road racing and popcorn. Let’s find out more.
Let's Go To Connecticut
In the Northwest region of the United States is the state of Connecticut. It’s famous for the US Constitution, author Mark Twain and pizza. Let’s find out more.
Let's Go To Rhode Island
In the Northeast region of the United States is the state of Rhode Island. It’s famous for its coastline, lighthouses, and seafood. Let’s find out more.
Let's Go To Oklahoma
In the Southwest region of the United States is the state of Oklahoma. It’s famous for the land runs, Tornado Alley and one of the country’s largest Native American cultural festivals. Let’s find out more.
Let's Go To North Dakota
In the Southwest region of the United States is the state of North Dakota. It’s famous for the Peace Garden, honey and Painted Canyon. Let’s find out more.
Let's Go To New Hampshire
In the Northeastern region of the United States is the state of New Hampshire. It’s famous for granite, the US Constitution and space exploration. Let’s find out more.
Let's Go To Texas
In the South Central region of the United States is the state of Texas. It’s famous for bucking broncos, ten Gallon hats, and barbecues that go on for days! Let’s take a closer look.
Let's Go To Hawaii
The US state of Hawaii is a chain of eight islands that’s famous for surfing, hula dancing and multicolored sandy beaches. Let’s find out more about Hawaii!
Let's Go To Puerto Rico and The US Virgin Islands
Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands are organized unincorporated territories of the United States. They’re famous for many things, from sandy beaches and indigenous culture to bioluminescent bays and amazing animals. Let’s find out more.
Let's Go To Utah
In the Western region of the United States is the state of Utah. It’s famous for Mount Zion National Park, Bonneville Salt Flats and the outdoor sports. Let’s find out more.
Let's Go To Pennsylvania
In the Western region of the United States is the state of California. It’s famous for making movies, the Golden Gate Bridge and the tallest trees in the world! Let’s find out more.
Let's Go To Tennessee
In the Southeastern region of the United States is the state of Tennessee. It’s famous for the Great Smoky mountains, world-class musicians and a group of very pampered ducks. Let’s find out more.
Let's Go To Georgia
In the Southeastern region of the United States is the state of Georgia. It’s famous for peaches, the world’s busiest airport and as the birthplace of Civil Rights leader, Martin Luther King. Let’s find out more.
Let's Go To Michigan
In the Upper Midwest region of the United States is the state of Michigan. It’s famous for its Great Lakes, lighthouses and history of car production. Let’s find out more.
Let's Go To North Carolina
In the Southern region of the United States is the state of North Carolina. It’s famous for shipbuilding, pirates and flight pioneers the Wright Brothers. Let’s find out more.
Let's Go To Florida
In the Southeastern region of the United States is the state of Florida. It’s famous for Disneyland, the Florida Keys and orange groves that go on and on. Let’s find out more.
Let's Go To West Virginia
In the Southeastern region of the United States is the state of West Virginia. It’s famous for mountains, the record-Breaking New River Gorge Bridge and pawpaw fruit. Let’s find out more.
Let's Go To Idaho
In the Pacific Northwest region of the United States is the state of Idaho. It’s famous for gemstones, legendary explorers and potatoes. Let’s find out more.
Let's Go To Delaware
In the Northeastern region of the United States is the state of Delaware. It’s famous for being the first US state of all, as well as horseshoe crabs and the Dover Motor Speedway. Let’s find out more.
Let's Go To Kentucky
In the Southeast region of the United States is the state of Kentucky. It’s famous for bluegrass, the Kentucky Derby and former US President Abraham Lincoln. Let’s find out more.
Let's Go To Kansas
In the Midwest region of the United States is the state of Kansas. It’s famous for sunflowers, buffalo and iconic female flight pioneer, Amelia Earhart. Let’s find out more.
Who were the Navajo code talkers of the Second World War?
Most secret codes developed during the Second World War used letters and numbers to convey hidden messages. So how did Navajo code talkers use their language to outwit the Nazis? David Rubenstein answers that question in a fact-filled history minute.
Whose portrait went viral in the 1800s?
In the 1800s, abolitionist Frederick Douglass made it his mission to become the most photographed man in America. So how did his image change the country? David Rubenstein investigates in a fact-filled history minute.