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Presidents' Day
From George Washington's birthday to a day honoring all U.S. Presidents, learn how Presidents' Day became a national holiday and its significance today.
First Day of School
Start the school year right with a growth mindset, clear goals, and the support of friends and teachers. Discover tips for making this first day of school your best yet.
Discover the science behind Solstices, the longest and shortest days of the year, and how Earth's tilt plays a crucial role in this phenomenon.
Twice a year, the Earth experiences an equinox – a remarkable cosmic event where day and night are of equal length, all over the world.
Teacher Appreciation Day
Explore why saying "thank you" to your teachers, principals, and other school staff is important everyday, and how you can celebrate Teacher Appreciation Day.
Groundhog Day
Groundhog Day traces its roots from ancient pagan rituals to 17th-century German settlers in Pennsylvania. This February 2nd tradition has evolved into a fun, modern celebration.
The Rise and Fall of Joseph McCarthy
This video tells the story of the rise and fall of Senator Joseph McCarthy, a fierce partisan and demagogue whose battles against Communism in early 1950s America utilized the new medium of television to garner public attention. Preying upon the public's fear of communism within the U.S. government, he hurled accusations against numerous political enemies often with little or no evidence, and with scant regard to the principles of due process, free speech, and liberty. The new medium of television, which helped his meteoric political rise, would ultimately play a key role in his undoing.
The Notorious Aaron Burr
You may know him as the man who killed Alexander Hamilton, but do you know the full story of one of American History's most notorious characters? Our latest Homework Help Institute of History video brings you the story of Aaron Burr, his rise to the position of governor of New York and vice president of the United States, and his spectacular downfall.
African Americans in the Gilded Age
This video provides a general overview of the experience of African Americans during the pivotal years of the Gilded Age, from the 1860s to the early 1900s. Despite the passage of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to the Constitution after the Civil War, which abolished slavery and granted citizenship and voting rights to African American men, millions of African Americans across the nation still faced an uphill struggle for equality and civil rights. Political disenfranchisement was widespread and segregation in the form of "Jim Crow" laws affected nearly every facet of public and private life in the South. Many African Americans migrated from the South to the North and West during this period. This era also saw the rise of dozens of notable African American civil rights leaders including Ida B. Wells, Frederick Douglass, Booker T. Washington, and W.E.B. Du Bois. Groups like the N.A.AC.P. were also established during this period to fight for the expansion of liberty and equality for African Americans.
Entrepreneurs: A History
This video focuses on the so-called "Robber Barons" or "Captains of Industry" of the late 19th and early 20th century, including Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller, J.P. Morgan, and Henry Ford. How did these men and those like them transform the U.S. economy during the Gilded Age, and what, if any, lessons do their stories have for us today?
The Origins of Partisanship
This video addresses the origins of partisanship in the United States. In the late 18th Century, the new nation was at risk of being torn apart as factions developed between Federalists and Anti-Federalists whose differences over the nature and structure of the new government played out in pamphlets, newspaper essays, state ratifying conventions, in taverns, and on street corners. Some compromise was reached with the ratification of The Bill of Rights, but differences over policy continued to play out among factions and the Federalists and Democratic-Republican parties formed. This video is intended as a general overview of this period of U.S. History, and a springboard for a deeper exploration of the various political disputes of the late 1700s and early 1800s.
The Story of "Boss" Tweed
This video tells the story of William "Boss" Tweed. Tracing his rise to political power in post Civil War New York City, a metropolis whose population was booming from an influx of European immigrants, this video explores the question of whether Tweed was a hero, a villain, or something in between.
Loyal American: Fred Korematsu
In this Homework Help narrative, learn the story of Fred Korematsu and his lifelong struggle for justice for himself and the thousands of Japanese-Americans wrongfully interned by the U.S. government during World War II.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton and the Stronghold of the Fortress
In this Homework Help Narrative, learn about the courage and determination of Elizabeth Cady Stanton and the origins of the Seneca Falls Convention of 1848.
Immigration to America
The rise in immigration to the United States in the 1840's altered the economic, cultural, and political climate of the nation in the first half of the 19th century.
The Rise of Mass Politics: Jacksonian Democracy
This video examines the Rise of Mass Politics and Jacksonian Democracy.
National Identity In The Early 1800s
This video discusses national identity in early America.
Early 1800s US Foreign Policy
This video discusses early American foreign policy.
The Constitution
This video discuses the need for a Constitution.
The Articles of Confederation
This video tackles the Articles of Confederation and the need for a Constitution
Philosophy Behind the Constitution
This video tackles the philosophical ideas behind the United States Constitution.
Foreign Impact During the Revolution
In our new Homework Help Series we break down history into easy to understand 5 minute videos to support a better understanding of American History.
Road To Revolution
In our new Homework Help Series we break down history into easy to understand 5 minute videos to support a better understanding of American History. In our fifth episode, we tackle the road to the American Revolution.
Colonial Culture
In our new Homework Help Series we break down history into easy to understand 5 minute videos to support a better understanding of American History. In our fourth episode, we tackle Colonial Culture in the 1600 and 1700's.
Development of Slavery in North America
In our new Homework Help Series we break down history into easy to understand 5 minute videos to support a better understanding of American History. In our tenth episode, we tackle early American foreign policy
The Colonization of America
In our new Homework Help Series we break down history into easy to understand 5 minute videos to support a better understanding of American History. In our second episode, we tackle the colonization of America.
The Columbian Exchange
Have you ever looked at your teacher with a puzzled face when they explain history? I know we have. In our new Homework Help Series we break down history into easy to understand 5 minute videos to support a better understanding of American History. In our first episode, we tackle the Columbian Exchange and early contact between Europeans, Natives and Africans.
Dred Scott v. Sandford
The Dred Scott v Sandford case of 1857 was brought to the Supreme Court just four years before the start of the Civil War. Dred Scott sued his master for his freedom and Judge Robert Taney ultimately ruled two things in the Dred Scott decision. First, African Americans were not citizens and had no right to sue in court. Second, Congress did not have the constitutional authority to ban slavery from the states. This case is considered one of the worst rulings in the history of the Supreme Court.
Miranda v. Arizona
Miranda v Arizona was a case brought to the Supreme Court in 1966 after Ernesto Miranda appealed his guilty conviction of kidnapping and rape. In his appeal, Miranda claimed he was unaware of his right to remain silent, and his resulting confession should not be used to incriminate him. The Supreme Court ruled in favor of Miranda and established the Miranda Warning, otherwise known as Miranda Rights. This warning is now recited in most instances of arrest to ensure the accused people are aware of their rights.
Grutter v. Bollinger
Grutter v. Bollinger was a case brought to the Supreme Court over the use of Affirmative Action in the college admissions process. The University of Michigan Law School denied acceptance to Barbara Grutter, despite her impressive resume. Grutter, a white woman, believed that her rejection was based on her race. The Supreme Court Justices ultimately ruled that the University of Michigan Law School’s admissions process was constitutional and did not violate the Equal Protection Clause in the 14th Amendment. Incorporation, the process of states being held liable to the Bill of Rights, allowed the Supreme Court to hear and rule on the case. However, there was doubt among the most conservative Supreme Court justices like Scalia and Rehnquist that affirmative action policy was a constitutional practice for university admission departments to take part in. Affirmative Action is still a highly debated topic today.
Regents of the University of California v. Bakke
Regents of the University of California v. Bakke was a case brought to the Supreme Court over the use of Affirmative Action in the college admission process. The University of California at Davis Medical School created a minimum minority student quota for the admissions department to fill each year. Bakke, a two-time UC-Davis Med School rejected applicant, sued the school for violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment and Title VI of the Civil Rights Acts. Ultimately, the Supreme Court justices ruled in support of the goals of Affirmative Action because of incorporation, the idea that the states must adhere to the protections of the Bill of Rights. They also stated that Bakke was, in fact, denied equal protection. This decision, because it was so muddled, did not set long-term precedents or clarifications concerning Affirmative Action. What is Affirmative Action? Affirmative Action is a policy, usually carried out by schools, businesses, government entities, and federal contractors, in which individuals of minority racial status are afforded preferential treatment on the basis of race. Affirmative action came about as part of a desire to rectify the traditional underrepresentation of minority peoples in desirable professions and universities, which negatively impacted their financial and social conditions.
Citizens United v. FEC
Citizens United v. FEC was a Supreme Court case surrounding campaign finance and corporate involvement in politics. The Federal Election Commission was created in 1971 and greatly regulated the amount of campaign finance political candidates were able to receive. By 2002, the Bipartisan Campaign Finance Reform Act (McCain-Feingold Act) restricted organizations from financing issue-based advertisements on behalf of candidates. This Citizens United v FEC summary explains how Citizens United released a million dollar ad against Hillary Clinton. Before the film aired, Citizens United challenged the McCain-Feingold Act, stating that money was a form of Free Speech, which is protected by the First Amendment. The Supreme Court ruled the McCain-Feingold Act as unconstitutional, but stated that corporations still cannot give money directly to political candidates.
Gibbons v. Ogden
Gibbons v Ogden was a Supreme Court case dealing with interstate commerce. Learn about Aaron Ogden, who in 1824 received a monopoly over steamboat access to the Hudson River thanks to a newly created New York law in this Gibbons v Ogden summary. On the other hand, Thomas Gibbons held a federal license to operate his steamboat between New York and New Jersey. Gibbons won unanimously through his connection of the Interstate Commerce Clause and Supremacy Clause. New York’s law was overturned and Gibbons, along with other steamboat operators were able to participate in Interstate Commerce via waterways.
Schenck v. United States
Schenck v. United States was a Supreme Court Case that explained some limits to the Freedom of Speech afforded by the First Amendment. During World War I, the US instituted a military draft. Many people released anti-war and anti-government information due to their displeasure with the draft. Charles Schenck, an anti-war socialist, was arrested by the Federal Government for circulating a pamphlet encouraging men to resist the draft and violating the Espionage Act of 1917. The Supreme Court ruled that wartime circumstances changed the rules related to free speech and resulted in the “Clear and Present Danger” rule.
McCulloch v. Maryland
McCulloch v Maryland was the 1819 Supreme Court case dealing mostly with the issue of Federalism. This McCulloch v Maryland summary explains the creation of a National Bank which was encouraged by Alexander Hamilton, but opposed by Thomas Jefferson, due to lack of authority given by the Constitution. The first National Bank was chartered, but then died 20 years later. In 1816, a National Bank was re-instated to help deal with debts from the War of 1812. This Second National Bank, established in Maryland, was taxed heavily by Thomas Jefferson and the State of Maryland. Federal Bank Cashier, James McCulloch, refused to pay the tax, stating that the state did not have the right to tax an institution of the Federal Government. Ultimately, the Supreme Court stated that Congress had the right to create the National Bank, under the Necessary and Proper Clause. Also, the State of Maryland did not have the right to tax the National Bank and the Federal Government under the Supremacy Clause.
Brown v. Board of Education
Brown v Board of Education was a case brought to the Supreme Court in 1954 after Linda Brown, an African American student in Kansas, was denied access to the white-only schools nearby her house. Future Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall was the lawyer for the case, and argued that segregated schools were inherently unequal. Ultimately, the Supreme Court ruled in favor of Linda Brown and declared segregation unconstitutional under the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment through incorporation under the premise that the bill of rights also applies to the states. This is one of the landmark cases that led to the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
Marbury v. Madison
This Marbury vs Madison summary video displays William Marbury as a judge appointed at the end of John Adams’ presidency but who never got his official commission papers. Once Thomas Jefferson became president, James Madison refused to deliver the commission papers. Marbury took his case to the Supreme Court and wanted a Writ of Mandamus, requiring Madison to deliver the papers. Ultimately, the court stated that Marbury was entitled to his papers, but it was unconstitutional for the courts to issue a Writ of Mandamus. Thus, judicial review was created, and the principle of checks and balances was strengthened through Marbury vs Madison.
Protests at the White House
There is a rich history of protests and demonstrations at the White House and Lafayette Park, from the suffragists' silent pickets to a peace vigil that has spanned across decades.
Building The White House
The White House stands as a symbol of freedom, but the story behind its construction reveals some important contradictions.
First Ladies
The role of the First Lady of the United States has changed over the years. These women have shaped the White House as well as the nation.
Ecosystem Services
Ecosystem services are essential gifts from nature, including food, clean air, water, and more. These services benefit both humans and all life on Earth. For instance, bees' pollination aids food growth, while wetlands store carbon and purify water. Protecting nature safeguards these vital services for our well-being and survival.
Life in the Colonies: Indigenous Communities
The arrival of Europeans and creation of the 13 colonies led to immense challenges and profound changes for Indigenous peoples.
Life in the Colonies: Work
The Thirteen Colonies were built by a diverse workforce including skilled laborers, indentured servants, enslaved people, and criminals, in stark contrast to modern labor practices.
Life in the Colonies: African Enslavement
Africans brought to the Thirteen Colonies faced hardships and resisted slavery in their quest for freedom.
Life in the Colonies: Women
In the Thirteen Colonies, women had limited rights and freedoms. Their lives, influenced by marriage, status, and coverture laws varied greatly, reflecting the evolving society of the time.
Presidential Transportation
U.S. Presidential transportation has evolved over time, from George Washington's horse-drawn carriage to the modern "Air Force One" and "The Beast."
West Virginia State Board of Education v. Barnette
Should students be required to salute the flag? In 1943, the Supreme Court heard a case after Jehovah's Witnesses in West Virginia refused to comply with a school board policy requiring they salute the U.S. flag during the Pledge of Allegiance. How did the Court rule? Find out with our latest Homework Help video!
United States v. Nixon
Can the President of the United States withhold certain information from Congress and the courts? During the Watergate Scandal, President Richard Nixon attempted to withhold recording tapes from the White House from investigators. The Supreme Court’s ruling would have huge impacts on the system of checks and balances within the United States' governing system.
The Third Amendment
Why did the Founders believe so strongly that troops should not be quartered in the homes of citizens that they enshrined this protection in the Bill of Rights? The Third Amendment is rarely talked about, but studying its origins and purposes is important in order to understand our system of the relationship between civilians and the military. Learn more about the story of the Third Amendment with this Homework Help video.
The Second Amendment
What are the origins of the Second Amendment, and how has it been interpreted throughout U.S. history? This Homework Help video explores the history of the Second Amendment as well as the Supreme Court interpretations of it that shape current discussions on the topic of gun control.
The Fourth Amendment
What prevents the police from randomly searching our homes and possessions whenever they want? The Founders created the Fourth Amendment to protect the individual right to private property. Learn more about its origins and some landmark Supreme Court cases in our latest Homework Help video.
The Fifth Amendment
What protections does the Fifth Amendment provide, and why did the Founders believe those were important enough to enshrine in the Bill of Rights? Our latest Homework Help video explores these questions and provides students with a succinct overview of the essential information regarding this amendment.
Shaw v Reno
Can a state draw district lines to increase the voting power of a minority? The Supreme Court took up this question in the 1993 case of Shaw v. Reno. Following the 1962 Baker v. Carr Supreme Court case, which ruled that the Supreme Court could hear cases on gerrymandering because of the Equal Protection Clause in the 14th Amendment through the process of incorporation, Shaw v. Reno challenged the constitutionality of gerrymandering based on race.
How did the United States attempt to reunite after the Civil War while also securing the rights of recently freed enslaved people and how successful was our country in accomplishing these goals? Our latest Homework Help video explores these questions while encouraging students to analyze the Reconstruction period and its relationship with the principles of liberty and equality.
Kelo v. New London
Under what circumstances can the government take your property? In 2005, the Supreme Court took on this question in the case of Kelo v. New London. The court argued about whether applying the 5th Amendment to the states using the Due Process Clause of the 14th Amendment was constitutional or unconstitutional. This process is referred to as incorporation. Our latest Homework Help video reviews the details of the case and encourages students to analyze the decision to form their own opinions.
Free Assembly
Why is the freedom of assembly an essential right in a free society? Our Homework Help video explores why the Founders included it in the 1st Amendment as well as the landmark Supreme Court cases involving it. Supreme Court cases arguing freedom of assembly debate the protections of the 14th Amendment. Although the Bill of Rights was initially limited to the federal government, incorporation also allows states to be culpable of the protections in the Bill of Rights.
Establishment Clause
What is the proper relationship between church and state? In this Homework Help video, we analyze this question by reviewing the history behind the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment as well as how the Supreme Court has interpreted its meaning.
Engel v. Vitale
Is school-sponsored prayer in public schools a violation of the establishment clause of the First Amendment? In 1951, some New York schools began starting the day with a non-denominational prayer. Our latest Homework Help video tells the story of the ensuing landmark Supreme Court case of Engel v. Vitale.
Wisconsin v. Yoder
Religious liberty is one of the foundational principles of American society, but how should it be balanced with government interests in an educated citizenry? Our second Homework Help video of the semester is on the landmark case of Wisconsin v. Yoder, and how the Supreme Court dealt with this important question.
South Dakota v. Dole
Why is the drinking age set at 21? This Homework Help video explores the dispute between states and the federal government over the legal age, and how it is an example of the principle of federalism in action.
Principle of Equality
Why is equality a bedrock principle in the United States? Our final Homework Help video of 2021 explores the origins of this principle and how our nation has not always lived up to it throughout our history.
Plessy v. Ferguson
How did the odious doctrine of “separate but equal” become legally permissible in the U.S.? This Homework Help narrative explores the story of the Plessy v. Ferguson Supreme Court case.
Origins and Purposes of the Bill of Rights
Why did the Founders see the need to create a Bill of Rights? What historical documents and events influenced them as they drafted it? This latest installment in our Homework Help series explores these important constitutional questions.
New York Times Co. v. United States
How to best balance liberty and security has been a perennial question throughout U.S. history. This Homework Help video explores how the Supreme Court addressed this question in the landmark case of New York Times Co. v. United States.
Mapp v. Ohio
Can the police use illegally seized evidence in a court of law? The landmark Supreme Court case Mapp v. Ohio addressed this issue, and the decision has had a lasting impact in the United States.
In this Homework Help narrative, learn about the constitutional principle of incorporation and its historic context. Has incorporating the Bill of Rights to apply to the states created greater liberty for Americans?
Freedom of the Press
What do you think of when you hear the words "free press"? The Founders believed the freedom of the press to be an important bulwark in a free society. Learn more about the history of the First Amendment as well as some landmark Supreme Court cases involving press freedom with this Homework Help video.
Free Speech
Why is the freedom of speech a bedrock principle in American society? In our latest Homework Help video, we explore the history of freedom of speech in the United States.
Free Exercise Clause
Why did the Founders believe that religious liberty was an inalienable right? In this Homework Help video, we explore the history behind the Free Exercise Clause of the First Amendment and how the Supreme Court has interpreted it.
This Homework Help narrative explores the history of the Founding of the U.S. and the reasons why federalism was created as an important part of our constitutional system. The video challenges viewers to consider this question: why do we have a system with local, state, and federal laws?
Bush v. Gore
Why was the presidential election of 2000 so controversial, and what constitutional questions were raised during the vote count? Our first Homework Help video of the semester explores these questions and will help your students understand the fundamental issues at hand in the case of Bush v. Gore!
U.S. v. Lopez
This Homework Help narrative explores the landmark case of U.S. v. Lopez and its lasting impact on federalism. Students will study the topic of federal power and street crime while forming their own opinions on the merits of the case.
The Story of Women's Suffrage in America (Part 2)
In part two of this two-part Homework Help narrative, learn about the challenges that the women’s suffrage movement overcame in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. What contributions did monumental suffragists like Alice Paul, Lucy Stone, and Carrie Chapman Catt make on the journey to winning the vote for women?
The Story of Women's Rights in Early America (Part 1)
In part one of this two-part Homework Help narrative, learn about the origins of the women’s suffrage movement from Colonial America through the nineteenth century. What challenges did these brave activists need to overcome in the early days of the movement to lay the groundwork for the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment?
The Electoral College
In this Homework Help narrative, learn about the origins and functions of the Electoral College. This constitutional institution has long been the subject of intense debate and scrutiny, and this video challenges students to think about it for themselves.
Baker v. Carr
In this Homework Help video, learn the story of the landmark Supreme Court case of Baker v. Carr. How did the ruling in this case contribute to the democratic principle of “one person-one vote”?
Tinker v. Des Moines
Why did a subtle act of protest against a foreign war reach the Supreme Court? In 1965, students John and Mary Beth Tinker wore black armbands to school to protest the United States’ involvement in the Vietnam War, despite the Des Moines school district prohibiting such an act. The Tinkers sued the district for violating their First Amendment rights, and the Supreme Court ruled in their favor in a 7-2 decision. While subsequent Supreme Court rulings narrowed the scope of free expression rights at school, Tinker v. Des Moines remains a landmark case that has defined First Amendment rights for students.
Roe v. Wade
Do women have a right to privacy when deciding whether to have an abortion? In 1969, a woman under the alias “Jane Roe” challenged a Texas law that outlawed abortions. The case eventually reached the Supreme Court, where Roe argued that a woman’s right to privacy in having an abortion is protected by the Constitution. In a 7-2 decision, the Court ruled the right to an abortion fell within the right to privacy protected by the Fourteenth Amendment’s Due Process Clause. To this day, the ruling in Roe v. Wade remains one of the most controversial Supreme Court decisions.
McDonald v. Chicago
Does the Second Amendment prevent a city from effectively outlawing handgun ownership? In 2008, Otis McDonald attempted to purchase a handgun for self-defense purposes in a Chicago suburb. However, the city of Chicago had banned handgun ownership in 1982 when it passed a law that prevented issuing handgun registrations. McDonald argued this law violated the Fourteenth Amendment’s Privileges and Immunities Clause as well as the Due Process Clause. In a 5-4 decision, the Court ruled that McDonald’s Second Amendment right to bear arms was protected at the state and local level by the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
Gideon v. Wainwright
Does an individual have a right to a lawyer, regardless of the crime he or she is charged with? In 1961, Clarence Gideon was arrested and charged with breaking and entering and petty larceny in Panama City, Florida. His request for a state-provided defense attorney was denied since Florida law only required doing so for capital offense cases. After Gideon was sentenced to 5 years in prison, he argued that Florida violated the Sixth Amendment’s guarantee of the right to counsel. The Supreme Court heard Gideon’s case and ruled in a 9-0 decision that the Sixth Amendment’s guarantee of an attorney applies to states through the Due Process Clause of the 14th Amendment.
Postcolonial Literature
Giving voice to the oppressed, discover how authors like Achebe, Rushdie and Adichie postcolonial literature to express the impacts of colonialism, reshaping identity and independence narratives from Africa to Asia.
Kate Chopin
Kate Chopin's groundbreaking novels and short stories drew on her experiences of growing up and living in the multicultural South, and boldly explores taboo themes of race, class, and female sexuality in 19th century society.
Ibi Zoboi
Ibi Zoboi's journey from Haiti to New York inspired her to write novels that capture the immigrant experience's diversity and challenges, blending elements of fantasy, social justice and cultural identity in her impactful young adult fiction.
Let’s Go To India
India is the largest country in Southeast Asia that’s famous for its stunning architecture, Bollywood movies and super spicy food. Let’s find out more!
Doppler Effect (IB)
A visual explanation of the Doppler Effect as it applies to sound waves.
Motion of Charged Particles in a Uniform Magnetic Field (IB)
A visual explanation of the path of charged particles in a uniform magnetic field, according to their charge and their angle of entry into the magnetic field. Includes how to calculate the radius of the particle’s path.
Mitosis Compared to Meiosis (IB)
An outline of mitosis and meiosis forms of cell division: comparing the similarities and differences between them, and outlining their function in organisms.
Viruses and the Lysogenic Cycle (IB)
An outline of the lytic and lysogenic cycles, using bacterial cells and the viruses which infect them as a visual example. Additional reference to the Herpes simplex virus as an animal example.
Hydrogen Emission Spectrum (IB)
A visual explanation of how the hydrogen emission spectrum provides evidence for the arrangement of electrons in discrete energy levels in atoms.
Collisions in Two Dimensions (IB)
A guide to understanding and applying the conservation of momentum, during collisions when the motion of the colliding bodies is not restricted to one dimension.
Thermal Conduction (IB)
A visual explanation of the factors which affect the rate of thermal energy transfer by conduction.
Compton Effect (IB)
A visual outline of the Compton Effect experiment, in which photons are scattered by electrons they hit. Includes context on what evidence this provides regarding the wave or particle nature of light.
Chromatography (IB)
An outline of how chromatography is used to separate the components of a substance based on each component’s intermolecular interactions with the materials it is moving through. Includes guidance on how to calculate each substance’s signature retardation factor.
Conservation of Angular Momentum (IB)
An outline of the basic principle of conservation of angular momentum, illustrating the inverse relationship between angular velocity and moment of inertia, with real-world examples.
Greenhouse Effect (IB)
An outline of the energy balance model of the Earth-atmosphere system, including how to calculate the effect of greenhouse gases, and the atmosphere, on Earth’s average temperature.
Stellar Parallax (IB)
An explanation of how the stellar parallax method can be used to calculate distances to stars, including the limitations of this method.
Methods of Charging (IB)
An outline of three ways electric charge can be moved between objects, including mention of how non-conducting objects can become charged.
Photosynthesis (IB)
An in-depth outline of photosynthesis, including light-dependent and light-independent reactions, how it is powered by excited electrons and ATP, and processes such as photolysis, chemiosmosis and the Calvin Cycle.
Nucleophilic Substitution (IB)
An outline of how both SN1 and SN2 types of nucleophilic substitution reaction occur, including covering the nature of electrophiles and nucleophiles.
Interpreting Diverse Media
From books to movies, documentaries to podcasts, and image searches to galleries, embracing diverse media enriches your understanding and transforms your research into a multi-faceted journey of discovery.
When to Capitalize Letters
Capital letters might not get your pulse racing, but they’re still vital. They indicate the beginning of sentences, signal proper nouns, names, and titles, and highlight key words in titles, enhancing clarity and understanding in writing.
Tommy Orange
Tommy Orange, a groundbreaking Indigenous American author, illuminates urban Indigenous experiences with a unique narrative.
The Lost Generation
The devastation and disillusionment that resonated through society in the aftermath of World War I had a profound impact on the literary landscape, notably a group of U.S. writers living in Europe, including Ernest Hemingway and F. Scott Fitzgerald. These writers are known as the Lost Generation.
Victorian Literature
Exploring the diversity of Victorian Literature, we discover how authors like Charles Dickens, the Brontë Sisters and Lewis Carroll captured the ideals and issues of a rapidly industrializing society, weaving tales of innovation, societal norms and adventure in 19th Century England.
Juxtaposition highlights similarities and differences between two things, giving you a deeper understanding of characters, plot and theme and making storytelling much more impactful.
How to Write a Strong Research Question
Crafting the right research question is a crucial step in developing the analytical skills necessary for school and life!
Author W.W. Jacobs crafted a unique blend of Gothic horror and dark comedy in his writings, most notably in 'The Monkey’s Paw', to inspire horror icons like Stephen King and Alfred Hitchcock.
Pam Muñoz Ryan
Author of groundbreaking novels like “Esperanza Rising" and "Echo," Pam Muñoz Ryan has made literature more representative by expertly mining her own rich Mexican American heritage.
Audre Lorde
Audre Lorde, a trailblazing Black feminist, poet, and essayist, passionately explored intersectionality, identity, and activism, leaving an enduring impact on literature and social justice.
Transcendentalism is a spiritual, philosophical and literary movement that emerged in the United States in the 19th century. With its emphasis on individualism and the inherent goodness of all people, discover how it impacted civil rights movements via works by Louisa May Alcott, Henry David Thoreau and others.
Dive into the world of Existentialism, where authors like Dostoevsky, Sartre and Camus challenge readers to find personal meaning amidst life's absurdities, blending deep philosophical questions with relatable human struggles.
Jacqueline Woodson
Jacqueline Woodson's journey, from her upbringing during the Civil Rights movement to becoming a celebrated children's author, showcases her dedication to creating stories that resonate with diverse experiences, especially for young Black readers.
Walter Dean Myers
Author of more than 100 books for young readers, Walter Dean Myers overcame many struggles in his personal life to write stories that represented the Black experience and the struggles of young Americans.
Jason Reynolds
Author Jason Reynolds has transformed young adult literature with his unique writing style, merging poetry with colloquial language to reflect the lives of Black and Brown youth in the US and beyond.
Nic Stone
Author Nic Stone tried many jobs before finding passion in writing, when her travels abroad inspired her to write stories and novels that spotlight issues faced by marginalized groups across the globe.
Discover the captivating world of epistolary literature, where stories unfold through letters and documents. Explore its rich history, unique storytelling elements, and how it connects readers to characters' inner thoughts and feelings.
Realism is a genre of writing that explores the real world, in all its gritty glory. Defined by authors like Gustav Flaubert, Edith Wharton and Alice Walker, realist writers often expose societal flaws, offering insights into the real-life struggles and the triumphs of ordinary people.
The Bald Eagle
The Bald Eagle, symbolizing strength and freedom, reflects the spirit of the United States. Chosen as the country’s national bird in 1782, this powerful animal is unique to North America.
Coming of Age
Coming of age stories chart a character’s journey from childhood through adolescence and into adulthood. This genre is also known by the German word, 'Bildungsroman'. We take a look at some classics of the genre, from Charles Dickens' Great Expectations to Harper Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird.
Newtown: A Crushing Defeat for the Iroquois
The Revolutionary War was never a simple story of Patriot vs Redcoat. Older nations with far deeper American roots were also caught up in the war. To secure their future, the nations of the Iroquois Confederacy had to choose a side – and in many ways, their long term fate was decided on the day of the Battle of Newtown.
Making Connections Within the Text
One of the primary joys of reading is seeing yourself in a character, or seeing world events mirrored in the plot of a book. This is called making connections with texts and it not only enhances enjoyment, it also enhances understanding and your ability as a reader.
Planning For A Research Paper
In the world of research and writing, planning is an essential roadmap that keeps you on course, prevents stress and detours, and leads to more efficient and higher-quality work.
The Federal Trade Commission
The Federal Trade Commission is an independent agency dedicated to limiting the power of big business, protecting consumer rights and ensuring fair competition. It’s the reason you can buy what you want, when you want it – providing you have the money.
Gary Soto
Gary Soto, a Mexican-American author and poet, captures the essence of youth and Chicano experiences in his stories, blending humor and the magic of everyday life.